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Explain how and why the Cold War in Europe and Asia got more serious between 1960 and 1964.

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Introduction

Explain how and why the Cold War in Europe and Asia got more serious between 1960 and 1964. Introduction The term "Cold War" is broadly described as a state of permanent hostility between two powers which never erupts into armed confrontation or "hot war". Current historiography recognises the term "Cold War" as the conflict between the United States of America and Union of Soviet Union from 1945 until 1989. The Cold War is based on political and economic issues between sides. The Cold War was exacerbated by propaganda, covert activity by intelligence agencies and economic sanctions. It intensified at times of conflict anywhere in the world. Two superpowers emerged; the United States of America took the role to lead the West while the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics took the position to lead the East. All elements of war were present at all times; both introducing improved tactics and weaponry as the war progressed. During this period both the West and the East went to great lengths to gain information about one another. As suspicion rose constantly as did the threat. Europe While American thinkers had guessed the USSR would not have nuclear weapons until the mid-1950s the first Soviet bomb was detonated on August 9, 1949, shocking the entire world. Both governments devoted massive amounts of resources to increasing the quality and quantity if their nuclear arsenal. Both nations quickly began work on hydrogen bombs and the United States detonated the first such device on November 1, 1952. Again the Soviets surprised the Americans exploding a superior device the next August. ...read more.

Middle

during the 1960's, the Russians put their money into producing more missiles regardless of quality while America built fewer but better quality missiles - the Atlas could go 5,000 miles at a speed of 16,000 mph. By 1961, there were enough bombs to destroy the world. Despite this, great emphasis was put on new weapon systems - mobile missile launchers were built, missiles were housed underground in silos and in 1960 the first Polaris submarine was launched carrying 16 nuclear missiles. Each missile carried four warheads, which could target on different cities; hence one submarine effectively carried 64 nuclear warheads. In 1959 Khrushchev said - There are only two ways: either Peaceful Coexistence or the most destructive war in history. There is no third way. There were good reasons for following this policy. By 1960, each superpower already had enough nuclear weapons to destroy each other. Neither side gained anything by increasing tension. There was a risk it may lead to a nuclear war which nobody wanted. Also, if the USA and USSR could agree on arms cuts, it would save money. In January 1960 a new decade dawned. Hopes of real progress in relations between America and Russia seemed possible. Both countries hoped that Khrushchev's idea of peaceful co-existence could be built upon. The U-2 incident was an episode of international conflict during the cold war. On the morning of May 1960 a supersonic plane stood on the runway of an American military base at Peshawar in Pakistan. ...read more.

Conclusion

Warsaw Pact countries found it easier to get their spies into the West since western countries were free and had democratic societies where one could travel freely, spies usually operated without much hindrance. So called "legals" often pretended to be international business men, professors, sportsmen, writers or embassy officials. For serious mission the KGB might smuggle in a person who was completely unknown to the target country. This type of spy was called "an illegal." Each spy had his/her own specific role to follow through, examples of this would be to steal plans of a new tank being made or finding the formula of a new chemical or medicine. Spies often used to recruit each other, they tried to make double agents. This was when a spy changed sides but pretended to go on a spying mission for their original country while all the time secretly helping the other side. These people were often seen as traitors and were often executed or imprisoned for life if they were caught. In the 1960's there was a major increase in spying, particularly in Berlin once the wall was erected. Each side used Berlin as a vital part of their spying network. For western spies, it was one of the few ways to get into Eastern Europe. In Asia there was much spying as the Russians, Chinese and Americans had all spied on each other. America tried to spy on the North Vietnamese and the Viet Cong, and in turn they did the same to the Americans. The CIA operated an existing spy network in South Vietnam, but not always with much success, often the Viet Cong had better intelligence. ...read more.

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