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Explain why Britain was able to continue to hold out between June 1940 and the end of 1943.

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William Mace When France Surrendered in June 1940 Britain was the only European country holding out against Germany. Explain why Britain was able to continue to hold out between June 1940 and the end of 1943. There are many different factors to consider when thinking about why Britain was able to continue to hold out between June 1940 and the end of 1943. There are many key events to consider when answering this question and I shall try to approach all of them in this essay. The battle of the Atlantic started properly in June 1940 after the fall of France. This is because the collapse of Western Europe provided the Kreigsmarine with and opportunity to possibly win the war; by severing the UK's maritime communications. Hitler's strategy was to sink allied shipping using the German submarines or U-boats. Hitler put a lot of his resources into this battle because Britain is an island and therefore has to get most of its resources brought in by boat. Therefore if Germany stopped all of the convoys from getting to Britain she would have to surrender. Hitler did not put many of his resources into building battleships because he knew that Britain already had a great advantage over him in that area. ...read more.


These meant that the convoys could get through and keep on helping Britain to hold out against the Germans. Another turning point in the battle of the Atlantic was the deciphering of the enigma code machine. Decoders at Bletchley Park decoded it and deciphering it meant that Britain could now predict the moves of the German U-boats and direct the warships towards them and the convoys away from them. Another factor which helped Britain hold out was the fact that Hitler decided to attack the Russians in June 1941. This helped us greatly because it meant that we now had another ally - Russia also it meant that the German forces would no longer be concentrated on just Britain, they would now be spread out over Britain and Russia. If Russia had fallen to Hitler Britain would have been forced to surrender but luckily for us the Germans were slightly over confident. Hitler had boasted that the Russians would be defeated in just 6 weeks so they did not issue their army with winter uniforms. This proved to be a dreadful mistake, because when the German army were within 12 miles of Moscow, the harsh Russian winter struck and without any winter uniform the German advance froze to a halt. ...read more.


Even though Hitler a great military mind he made many blunders between 1940-43 which helped Britain to hold out during this period even though we were the only European country left fighting, for example when Hitler decided not to bomb the RAF targets, but to bomb the British cities instead. Not putting Germany's best equipment into North Africa meant that Germany could not fuel its army so easily. German invasion of Russia took the pressure off us and military planning and scientific skill meant that the German threat in the Atlantic was put to rest. The fact that Britain is an island made it a lot harder for the Germans to attack us, this aided us greatly especially seeing as we had great naval superiority the island was never really under threat from invasion. In conclusion there were many factors that helped Britain to hold out between the fall of France in June 1940 and the end of 1943, and it was not easy for the British but great leadership from Churchill and some dodgy decisions by Hitler helped us through the time greatly. American assistance such as the lend-lease act helped greatly also, although at the end of the war Britain was in massive debt and had a lot of work to do to build itself back up again. ...read more.

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