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Forces of change in European History. Definitions of Political Theories.

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Introduction

´╗┐Tom Grinstead Forces of Change in Modern European History Definitions Marxism This is a set of political ideas created by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. These ideas then became the basis for communism. It states that struggle between various classes is the basic agency of historical change, and that capitalism will ultimately be superseded by a classless society. Many Marxists say that modern "Communism" is not Communism at all. That nations such as Russia, The People's Republic of China, Venezuela, Cuba, and Vietnam are different forms of Capitalism, often with heavily "nationalized" industries. Modern Communism claims to be based on Marxist ideas, but many Marxists disagree about whether Communist countries have understood Marxism correctly. Liberalism This is another political theory. Liberals believe everyone has the right to live their lives as they please, as long as they do not hurt other people. They believe in democracy where the public elects there leaders through fair elections and then the elected leaders should then protect their people?s personal freedom. Some liberals believe that freedom is impossible without equality, and that governments help people by providing education and health care supported by taxes. But other liberals believe that taxes are wrong, and people should support themselves and provide their own education and health care; these people are usually called libertarians today. ...read more.

Middle

Communism This policy is a political way of thinking and an idea of how society should work and be organized. Communism is a kind of socialism that says that there should not be social classes or states. Communism says that the people of any and every place in the world should all own the tools, factories, and farms that are used to produce goods and food. This social process is known as common ownership. In a communist society, there is no private property Leninism Lenin?s developments of Marxism became known as Leninism, Like other Communists, Lenin wanted to see a Socialist revolution led by the working class. But he thought the workers needed strong leadership in the form of a Revolutionary Party organized along Democratic Centralist lines. Lenin wanted Communist political parties in every country to lead the revolution. He thought the vanguard party would need have strong discipline, or it would fail. Stalinism Stalinism is the version of communism used under the rule of Stalin 1924-1953 over the Soviet Union. He used lots of terror to try and control the people. He focused on rapid industrialization, the collectivization of agriculture and much more. Fascism In this extreme right policy the country is seen as more important than one person or group. ...read more.

Conclusion

Lenin adapted Marxism to work in Russia and Stalin then adapted Leninism to include a dictatorship that involved using even more terror to control the people. Nationalism is linked to imperialism as they both require an aggressive foreign policy. Late 19th century European powers desire for colonies and empire linked to excessive nationalism . Also in 20th century nationalist dictators want land, colonies living space and the pride and patriotism that comes with empires etc. Nazism took this on to another level by using race as well as nationality for the basis of its imperial conquest. Nazism is linked to fascism as Nazi Germany was a fascist regime led by a dictator like all fascist regimes. Nazism is Hitler?s adaption of fascism. Imitated in some ways like other fascist leaders like Mussolini in Italy. Similar characteristics such as a strong foreign policy, terror, secret police, one party state etc. Stalinism and Nazism and Fascism shared belief in supreme leader. These regimes in the 20?s and 30?s shared the idea of the Cult of individual. Hitler, Stalin, Mussolini and Franco were effectively dictator. Extremist regimes on the left and right both believed in the need for a strong leader to carry out strong revolutionary policies. Totalitarianism again links to Stalinism, Fascism and Nazism. In the 1920?s the creation of one party states led to no elections and the rise of dictators such as Mussolini ...read more.

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