• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Foreign Policy Under MacDonald and Baldwin

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Foreign Policy Under MacDonald and Baldwin A - The International Context 1. Japan was seen as an 'aggressor state' and threatened Britain's Eastern interests such as Hong Kong, Malaya and Singapore. 2. Taylor's assumption that Hitler was an opportunist like Weimar politicians can be argued with due to the German invasion of Russia and Poland which clearly indicated his determination in pursuing his objectives 3. The recovery of Alsace Lorraine completed French territorial ambitions. Emphasis was placed on forming powerful alliances (e.g. -Britain) to restrain a resurgent Germany, however French politics remained uncoordinated and weak and the shortlived governments were hard to cooperate with. 4. Western governments were faced with an unappealing ally in the USSR because it was necessary it deter a Stalin-Hitler alliance and therefore unavoidable, despite Russia's communism. 5. For the entire 1920's, the US congress had remained isolationist. The 1935 Nye Commission concluded that high profits on American munitions had resulted in US involvement in WW1. As a result the 'Neutrality Acts' were passed which banned the sales of arms to any foreign country. ...read more.

Middle

D - The Collapse of International Cooperation 1. International cooperation was sought through disarmament talks and international finance. Failure on both of these fronts can not be attributed to lack of British endeavor, diplomatic conferences were scheduled but did not gain any results. Parity was difficult to establish, especially between France & Italy and Germany. Germany's objections to the fairness and ratios of arms were the main cause of failure for the disarmament program. The same day fair British proposals were made, Germany withdrew from talks and later left the League. Their resistance to any plan rendered the Disarmament Conferences useless. After the 1931 collapse of the Gold Standard resulting in serious currency fluctuations, a main objective was to create a stable, worldwide financial system. In June 1933, 64 countries attended the 'World Economic Conference', however differing degrees of loyalty and dependence on the Gold Standard resulted in a clash of interest and cooperation ceased. 2. Fascist takeovers such as the invasions of Abyssinia and Manchuria, weakened the League considerably, and British policies did not help restrain this. ...read more.

Conclusion

The 1937 Inskip Report constrained the economy until 1939, making no preparation for any expeditionary force F - The Invasion of the Rhineland 1. Eden's view was that Hitler's reoccupation of the Rhineland had removed another 'bargaining counter' in the concessions made towards Germany. 2. The British government did not see the reoccupation as a great breach of the Treaty, instead accounting for it as Hitler merely 'marching into his own back yard'. Avoiding antagonism was necessary for Britain, whose armaments and public were not in a fit state to go to war. 3. As a result, France were more vulnerable with the now defended Rhineland no longer acting as a buffer from Germany's troops. G - The Spanish Civil War Britain's ambivalent, non-interventionist policies, chiefly the 'Gentleman's Agreement' which accepted status quo with Mussolini in 1937, helped make forming any future anti-fascist alliance difficult. Russia consequently became increasingly distrustful of France and Britain because of their failure to prevent German and Italian support for the Spanish Nationalists. The League of Nations was revealed as weak and useless - a legitamate Spanish government had been overthrown. The mutual suspicions between Russia, France and Britain made a anti-fascist front even more unlikely. H - Conclusion ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Hitlers Germany

    All the twenty-one defendants at Nuremberg pleaded innocent, and only a few of them admitted that they were guilty of serious transgressions. They also questioned the legality of being tried by non-Germans and by legal principles and procedures for which they claimed there was no precedent.

  2. britaina nd disarmament

    than actual physical disarmament, and this was understood by all British governments in the 1920s. In November 1921, the Washington Naval Conference was convened to discuss a form of naval disarmament. It was proposed that limitations be put upon the building of so-called capital ships which exceeded 10,000 tons according to a ratio.

  1. "Nazi policy towards the Jews up to 1939 was uncoordinated and erratic."

    In April 1933 the first legal definition of who was a Jew was passed, it stated: "A person is to be considered non-Aryan if he is descended from non-Aryan, and especially from Jewish parents or grandparents. It is sufficient if one parent or grandparent is non-Aryan."

  2. Apeasement Did the policy of appeasement go to any great lengths toward stopping the ...

    " We cannot look back with much pleasure on our foreign policy.... the violation of the Rhineland is serious because of the menace to which it exposes Holland Belgium and France." Therefore Churchill is expressing that the undermining of democracy was a serious event when taken in context.

  1. Did the policy of appeasement go to any great lengths toward stopping the outbreak ...

    Under the treaty of Versailles the Rhineland was declared a demilitarised zone, this can be looked upon as an act of aggression as it breaks the terms of the treaty of Versailles, and also the Locarno agreement. Hitler's decision to remilitarise the Rhineland at this stage of events was triggered

  2. "An Honourable Policy Pursued by Honourable Men"-Is This a Fair Assessment of the Policy ...

    Although appeasement eventually failed, Neville Chamberlain was certainly honourable in his efforts to try and keep the peace in Europe. However, there were definite weaknesses to Chamberlain's character and some of his actions. Although Chamberlain made clear how little he trusted Hitler, there were certain incidents which should have shown him that Hitler was unappeasable.

  1. Why was the league so ineffective in dealing with the Abyssinian Crisis?

    When Italy did invade it looked like Hoars words had finally made the league do something to a major aggressor as the league placed sanctions on Italy. However, the sanctions were not placed upon the essentials for war, iron, coal and oil because Britain and France were worried about provoking Mussolini any more than they had to.

  2. Why was the league so ineffective in dealing with the Abyssinian Crisis?

    The whole idea of the league was to stop aggressors and yet here they were trying to come to some sort of deal with them. Because of these meetings Mussolini thought that both Britain and France wouldn't object at

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work