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History Notes on the aftermath of the American Civil War

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Introduction

APUSH Ch. 22 NOTES The Problems of Peace * What to do with freed blacks * How to reunite the South into the Union * Who would control Reconstruction - executive or legislature * Southern way of life was abolished although Southerners remained very resistant - really defiant Freedmen Define Freedom * Slaves' freedom came gradually * Slaves took the roads, changed their names, wanted to be addressed with respect which angered whites * Church became important in blacks' lives and created their own denomination(s) - attendance was very high * Reading and writing became highly important - teachers were scarce until the gov't provided some teachers Freedmen's Bureau * Created by Congress - March 1865 * Meaning of agency was intended to be a primitive welfare agency (food, clothes, med. Care and education) - not just for freedmen but for white refugees too * Oliver O Howard - head of the bureau (founder Howard University) * Greatest success was in education * Its accomplishments were meager - even corrupt - land was not distributed to freed blacks and many were tricked into signing labor contracts to work for former masters * Southerners cried federal oppression * President Johnson shared white supremacist views and tried to kill ...read more.

Middle

to extend the Freedmen's Bureau which upset the Repubs who passed the Civil Rights Bill - grants blacks citizenship - strikes out the Black Codes * AJ vetoes bill - Congress ignores veto as they repeatedly do - clipping the President's power * Now Repubs turn Civ Rights bill into 14th Amendment (citizenship) * No state would be allowed back without ratifying the 14th amendment * AJ advised the southern states to reject Swinging Round the Circle with Johnson * The issue between AJ and Congress was whether or not Reconstruction would be carried out without the 14th amendment * Election of 1866, AJ set out on a series of "give 'em hell" speeches Radicals of stirring up problems in the South - this was highly unpopular and Repubs swept both houses of Congress in the election Republican Principles and Programs * Now Repubs had veto-proof Congress and could move forward with policies * Two factions within the Repub party (Radicals led by Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens) both dedicated to keeping the south out long enough to pass laws that would drastically change social and economic transformations in the South - Moderates - more cautious of federal interference in citizens lives agreed with Radicals that blacks would ...read more.

Conclusion

the Impeachment Plank * Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act in 1867 - required the President to get Senate approval to Remove any Senate-approved cabinet member * Real purpose was to keep Stanton in office (Sec. of War) * Johnson dismissed Stanton any way and Congress voted to impeach the President for "high crimes and misdeameanors" A Not-Guilty Verdict for Johnson * H of R prosecuted the president * Johnson argued that the ACT was unconstitutional and that he dismissed Stanton to test it's constitutionality * 1868 - Senate voted NOT GUILTY * Fears of creating a poor precedent and opposition to abusing checks and balances system caused the senators to vote NOT GUILTY The Purchase of Alaska * By 1867 Alaska was sold to US from Russia * Rather have the US than GB have control of this area because so close to Russia * Sold for $7.2 million * Sec of state William Seward signed the deal even against public opinion The Heritage of Reconstruction * Most southerners thought Reconstruction was worse than the war itself because it's social and political status quo * Although former slaves were freed and given the right to vote, true reform did not take place for another 100 years ...read more.

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