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AS and A Level: History of the USA, 1840-1968
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Assess the significance of the role of individuals in reducing racial discrimination in the USA throughout the period 1877-1981.5 star(s)
This helped to relieve some who were less fortunate. On the other hand Du Bois took a route which directly campaigned for civil rights for African Americans; alike to Washington he achieved little due to the already widespread racial situation in the USA. It is noticeable that these individuals had no short term meaningful effect on reducing racial discrimination, however much was achieved long term as they created the path for the civil rights movement in the future, this was also aided with the work from the NACCP, which raised awareness of the racial discrimination situation in America.
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of racial equality but it was clearly not enough for the cause and attitudes like this of top politicians slowed down any progress in the development overall. Any additional help that could come through Government needed the placement of politicians willing to help racial equality, especially in the Deep South, but a lack of black voters in these states left clearly racist politicians with no intention of changing the racist laws that governed their state. The increase in voters during this period was not enough to sway the vote away from racist politicians and any progress in this way was clearly going to be a slow process.
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To what extent did the US president hinder rather than help the development of African American civil rights in the period from 1865-1992?3 star(s)
Although most hindered the development and were passive, by 1992 presidents had created Civil Rights for African Americans. In this essay I will be discussing the both side of the argument in which I will include the Presidents who helped the development of African American and those who hinder the development. Presidents hindered the development of African Americans Civil Rights because at the start of the time period they frequently held White Supremacist views. For example, Johnson at the start of the period can be seen as actively hindering the development of African American Civil Rights. Johnson clearly opposed civil right legislation as the civil war was his priority.
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This brought the beginning of the term 'Red Power' made by the younger generation, for the more militant side which increased popularity and support that the Native Americans had. It came from the influence of the progression that the black power were having and they wanted to have the same impact in publicity. Also in 1972, over the trial of broken treaties, they took over the bureau's offices and released that they government could be giving $400 to each family.
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To what extent was the 1920s a major turning point in the development of labour and trade union rights in the USA from 1865-1992?4 star(s)
For example, workers saw a rise in real wages and employers taking actions to improve working conditions by reducing working hours and introducing insurance benefits and pension plans. Henry Ford was an example of the "welfare capitalism" which characterised the 1920s, Ford Motor Company was the first big business to double the daily wage and introduce the 8 hour working day. Representatives were even able to meet with employers to discuss grievances over production and plant safety. These developments were clearly significant for labour rights as the fundamental right of working in a safe environment and negotiating conditions were established.
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Use sources A, B and C and your own knowledge. How far was the outbreak of the war of American Independence due to the lack of willingness of the American colonies to compromise in the years 1770 to 1775?4 star(s)
Because of this, by 1770 relations between British authorities and the leaders of the colonial legislatures had broken down. Moreover, events such as the Gaspee incident worsened relations between the American colonies and the British and it showed that the Colonists had no respect for the British policies and were not willing to compromise with the British' ideas to improve relations. In addition, source A suggests that due to the American colonies not abiding to the British policies throughout the 1760's the British felt that they couldn't trust the colonies to obey various regulations and restrictions that were needed for the colonists to have more freedom.
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Assess the view that the Supreme Court was the most important branch of federal government in assisting African Americans to achieve their civil rights in the period 1865-1992.4 star(s)
began as early as the 1870s, when cases like the Slaughterhouse case effectively undid the work of Congress, thanks to rulings by the Supreme Court. This case ruled that states were permitted to make laws affecting the rights of the citizens - a ruling that would allow southern states to make laws segregating black and white citizens. In fact, it almost went so far as to completely disregard the 14th Amendment, claiming it protected an person's individual rights, but not their civil rights - with one ruling, the Supreme Court effectively removed de jure equality for African Americans, and moved de facto equality further out of their reach.
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As alcohol became a luxury item increasing its appeal and demand to young people. Non-drinkers were also targeted as a means of improving sales due to the obvious profits to be made. This meant that by 1922 consumption began to rise steadily reaching the amount of 1.2 gallons of alcohol per capita 1923, a huge leap compared to the 0.8 gallons consumed in 1919 before prohibition. Driven by the opportunity to satisfy demand and make a profit a network of illegal bootleggers and speakeasies emerged.
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The increase in federal power supported people through the recession and restored the national morale and avoided the feeling of isolation particularly for farmers. Increasing the confidence and hope in the American people was crucial in order for quick and successful economical restoration in the U.S and it is therefore possible to view the New Deal as success. However, Source C challenges this idea by presenting Roosevelt's New Deal policies as tyranny and a ploy through use of the classical mythology of the Trojan Horse.
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The emphasis on "more public works schemes" suggests that Hoover was not reluctant to help, and he wanted to ease America during times of hardship. Furthermore, Hoover secures an additional $500 million from Congress in 1931, to help agencies around the USA to provide relief. In hindsight, it is clear that Hoover did much to try and ease America through the depression, but whether his aid was in time or consistent is arguable. However, it can also be suggested that Hoover's interventions did not do a sufficient amount during the depression, hence the depression merely stood at a halt.
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To what extent were Malcolm X and the subsequent Black Power Movement the 'Evil Twin' of the Civil Rights Movement in the late twentieth century in the United States of America?4 star(s)
"Although the CRM of 1954-65 effected change in the South, it did nothing for the problems in the North, Midwest and West."14 The squalid living conditions in the Ghettos of cities such as New York that resulted from economic hardship were a key issue for the ensuing movement and their improvement made up a great part of the movement's agenda. A notable statistic is that although African Americans constituted around 10% of the population, almost a third of all those living below the poverty line were African Americans.15 The first reason that may cause the analogy of an 'evil twin' to be associated with Malcolm X is his promotion of separatism16 at a time of primarily integrationist thinking.
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He also passed a few protective tariffs in an attempt to help the American economy. Even with these few accomplishments I few that President Jackson was not a very effective president. President Jackson made many choices based upon his political goals, not for the American people. He also, fought against the second back of the United States causing more problems for the nation. Jackson may have felt that he knew what was best for the nation's future, but he made many poor choices.
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How effective was the early civil rights movement in advancing Black Civil Rights in the period 1880-1945?3 star(s)
In reaction to the Black Codes the 14th amendment was passed in 1868. This stated that all free men shall be protected and enjoy equal treatment under the law. The idea was to protect the African American population, making them citizens thus forcing the federal Government to be responsible for them. If rights were denied by any States, the State in question would lose all representation in Congress. Yet to many Southern States this threat carried little purpose and no real threat. The States were prepared to accept the loss of representation in order to continue discriminating against the black population.
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Moreover, the latter was upheld by a radical groups known as the Ku Klux Klan made up of different individuals some possessing a great deal of power such as governors and police officers. They felt that segregation of Black and White Americans was correct and used violent means such as 'lynching' to enforce the same. It is ironic then that Black Americans played a huge part in providing the financial support for some of the Southern states, yet only 5% registered were allowed to vote.
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The gentlemen's agreement between Roosevelt and the Japanese government halted the influx of Japanese immigrants. "Yellow Peril" is another situation which Roosevelt demonstrated his ability to protect foreign relations and at the same time get what he wanted in terms of what was best for America and himself. However even though Roosevelt dealt with the problem it was still an extremely unsuccessful aspect of foreign policy. One success of Roosevelt's was the 'Spanish - American' war. America defeated a weakening Spanish army fairly easily after 10 undefeated battles and this gave them a strong reputation.
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How important was public opinion in the years 1965 to 1968 to putting President Johnson under pressure to withdraw US forces from Vietnam?
By 1969, at least two million Americans were drawn into public protest'. Johnson understood that opposition would continue to grow as the US were becoming more involved day by day, and that the US casualty rate was continuously rising. The public opinion that was demonstrated as a result of the huge human and financial cost (there was a $25.3 billion deficit by 1968) was a great pressure on Johnson and he had to acknowledge what they were saying before things became too out of hand.
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In 1961 military aid for South Vietnam to expand the ARVN rose from $220 million to $262 million. There was less than 1000 US military personnel in South Vietnam when Eisenhower handed over to Kennedy in January 1961, and even this was a breach of the Geneva Accords of 1954 that stated there were to be no foreign troops in Vietnam. By the end of 1963 there were approximately 16,300 US military personnel in South Vietnam which shows growing commitment on part of the USA.
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It showed the unity of the Civil Rights groups and their power within society but it also showed the strength of White support that was growing within America and internationally also as the media picked up on the dignity of which the Black Protestors acted with, whilst faced with the violence of the white extremists. This links in with the factor of Media attention which was also significant in the passing of this act. The Media played a huge part in the civil rights movement.
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Asses the view that Hoovers policies and attitudes in the years 1929-33 merely prolonged the depression.
Source 7 describes Hoover as a very stubborn person who "Remained convinced that he was right" Hoovers attitudes towards agriculture did not help American farmers at all. The agricultural marketing act was established in 1929 which artificially purchased farmers surpluses at prices above the market price. Hoover gave the Federal Farm Board $500M, yet Hoover still not think through exactly what he was doing. The agricultural market was in a significant decline in America during the 1930s and he only encouraged farmers to produce more as the Federal Reserve board was purchasing their surpluses.
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How far do you agree with the view that McCarthyism had little impact on US society in the years 1950-54?
Therefore, people had a reason to fear Communism as Americans were living a better and more affluent life and they did not want their privileges to be taken away from them. McCarthy took advantage of this and manipulated the press, and released as many accusations as possible in order to decrease the spreading of Communism. He also used radio, to suggest who he thought was a communist; anyone who he saw to be left winged or radical was a communist in the eyes of McCarthy.
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In considering the development of the USA in the years 1815-1917, how far can the union victory in the civil war be seen as a turning point?
In practise African American involvement politically were also progressing, by late 1870's 64 out of 140 Representatives where Black Americans in the state Mississippi, this proves the union victory assured opportunities and a turning point for former slaves, additionally 13th Amendment was set in 1865, abolishing slavery, which was a support for black Americans freedom. But yet it was a limited turning point as many former slaves still feared to break away and develop their lives. In contrast in the long term meaning this caused in response brutal racial actions from radical racist white American.
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This illustrates the desperation of people that how significant Black Salves have become to both North and South. Many would argue that in the short term meaning this boosted majority of black slaves to become more courageous and fight for their freedom to escape. An extract 'free at last'1 illustrates the hope for black Americans 'the slaves took full advantage, chipping away at their bondage from within while Union armies pounded it from without' this explains their discretion of trying to break away even though their former slave holders have tighten their discipline into a more brutal way.
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neck and exited his throat, the other of which entered the back of his head and terminated the life of this victim. Divulged amongst this analysis many key groups and individuals challenge and protest the authenticity and accuracy of the formulated conclusions, the events of the assassination along with the lack of hard evidence, and distinguished tampered evidence, forces a sequence of misconceptions, conveying the illusion that the government is disguising a cover-up or conspiracy. Immersed through the idea that the American government withheld the essential truth from its citizens and the international public eyes, the JFK assassination inadequacies towards the exposure of evidence and alteration of information, photographic material and films have been interpreted through many professional perspectives.
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US History. How would you characterize the positions of the North at the time leading up to the Compromise of 1850?
The dilemma did occur again when California applied for statehood due to the Gold Rush of 1849 (Jordan 326). The same situation occurred in Utah when Utah had enough people to join the Union. Neither the South nor the North wanted the territories to become like the other. A compromise was necessary. No side would back down and it seemed if a compromise was not met, there would either be a southern secession or a civil war. (Jordan 326). The compromise of 1850, or the Great Compromise, was adopted in which Stephen Douglas took Henry Clay's compromise and broke it up into individual bills to be voted on separately (Jordan 328).
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Spies had to be perfect at their guises and tactics for their success. According to Peggy Caravantes, Albert A. Nofi and Bryna Stevens, Sarah Emma Edmonds was the best at her guises. In her childhood, Edmonds often had to help her father with chores regularly done by boys, and she built a strong, lean body. Later, her body and her guises, helped her disguises as Franklin Thompson, "Cuff" (a plantation slave), a peddler, a widow and a Kentuckian confederate soldier (also named Frank Thompson). Due to these guises, Edmonds could pass through enemy lines again and again, successfully. A few times, her guises were that close to perfection that she was mistaken for the character she was disguised as.
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