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AS and A Level: History of the USA, 1840-1968
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Assess the significance of the role of individuals in reducing racial discrimination in the USA throughout the period 1877-1981.5 star(s)
This helped to relieve some who were less fortunate. On the other hand Du Bois took a route which directly campaigned for civil rights for African Americans; alike to Washington he achieved little due to the already widespread racial situation in the USA. It is noticeable that these individuals had no short term meaningful effect on reducing racial discrimination, however much was achieved long term as they created the path for the civil rights movement in the future, this was also aided with the work from the NACCP, which raised awareness of the racial discrimination situation in America.
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This brought the beginning of the term 'Red Power' made by the younger generation, for the more militant side which increased popularity and support that the Native Americans had. It came from the influence of the progression that the black power were having and they wanted to have the same impact in publicity. Also in 1972, over the trial of broken treaties, they took over the bureau's offices and released that they government could be giving $400 to each family.
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The question that will be investigated is, to what extent was the case of Brown v Board of Education ineffective during the civil rights movement, and what other steps were taken to establish equal rights?
However, this case still held that "separate but equal" was unconstitutional. It was not until 1950 in Sweatt v Painter that ruled Plessy v Ferguson unconstitutional and integrated law and graduate schools. In fact, it was Sweatt v Painter that was the landmark case overturning Plessy, and not Brown v Board of Education in 1954, in which Earl Warren overturned separate but equal and integrated all public facilities. No time table was established in each of the Court cases. This problem was solved the next year through Brown v Board of Education II, establishing that school systems must abolish racism with "all deliberate speed".
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To what extent did the actions of Rosa Parks contribute to the reversal of the Montgomery, Alabama bus ordinance?
in 1943 as secretary * Worked as seamstress * Advisor to NCAAP Youth Council * Worked with Voters League * Attended a civil rights workshop weeks before her arrest (Highlander Folk School, Tenesse)1 Boycott December 1st, 1955 * Parks refused to give up her seat after coming home from work at department store * Arrested and fined $14 * The Montgomery Improvement Association, leader Martin Luther King Jr., started bus boycott (December 5th, 1955) * One day protest * African-Americans refused to ride bus and walked, carpooled, biked and took cabs designated for blacks to work2 Montgomery Bus Boycott * Protest lasted 381 days * Martin Luther King Jr.
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Politically there was enough opposition to create severe importance however there were also other schemes that contributed to impacting the New Deal, but I believe due to the New Deals success in the beginning created no opportunity for oppositional groups to contribute any significance, no matter how strong they were to influence the New Deal. From the Left, many activists had their own ideologies and beliefs, many like Huey Long, Francis Townsend and Father Coughlin believed the New Deal "were not going far enough" which Coughlin envisaged, yet he initially stated "the New Deal is Christ's Deal"8 however he turned
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The industrial capitalist, through their political spokesmen, the Republicans, had succeeded in capturing the state and using it as an instrument to strengthen their economic position...while the war was waged on the field and through Negro emancipation, in Congress' halls the victory was made secure by the passage of tariff, banking, public-land, railroad, and contract labor legislation.' There is no doubt that the South and the North were fighting to maintain political and economic power within the union. The Senate had two representatives from each state but representation in the House of Representatives depended on population and the population in the North was much larger.
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This greatly angered Northerners, creating 'a hell of a storm'. In fact many believe that 'No single act of slave power ever spread greater consternation, produced more lasting results upon the popular mind, or did so much to arouse the North.' 2 This shows the first signs of tensions that were becoming more apparent between the Northern and Southern Congressmen. These initial tensions began to increase and soon this conflict between the North and the South spread beyond the point of mere heated debates and soon, rather inevitably, developed into acts of physical violence.
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Overall it shows that although Malcolm had potential to be a leader in the fight for equality, he failed to do so, due to his ideologies and his policy of violence. I agree with the sources view that Malcolm X did have the leadership potential, but it was clear that Black American's had wanted to go about reducing racial discrimination with use of a non violent approach, this is shown in X's rivalry with Martin Luther King who always had fonder support from Black American's.
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There were so many sides to Malcolm X and from a young age could be described as lost with no purpose, after he was told that a career as a lawyer was "no realistic goal for a nigger,"8. As times advanced and after his ten year imprisonment he adopted the Muslim religion, joining the Nation of Islam led by Elijah Muhammad who believed that "white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and achieving political, economic and social success"9.
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While King believed strongly in the importance of non-violent action, partly due to religious reasons, Malcolm X felt that violence used for "self defence" was acceptable. The ideas of these two very different men contradicted each other, which caused tension within the movement and meant there was a lack of unity during the 1960s. However, as both men began to acknowledge each other, their views changed slightly and moved closer towards a kind of middle ground, showing that, although they were divided, there could have been the potential for a much more united movement during the 1960s.
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Agricultural business as a whole was large and well financed. Technical advances in agriculture and mass production led to a great increase in production, cereal production was once such area where there was a dramatic increase. The land they worked on was also an extremely profitable asset, as some farmers grew rich by selling their land to housing and industrial development. However the increased production in agriculture would also prove to be its downfall. Overproduction of cereal meant there was far too much of it. As there was too much grain there was no longer as much demand for it so the prices fell.
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Evaluate the view that overproduction of goods was the most important reason for the collapse in US economy from October 1929
Nevertheless it was the lack of governmental control of the situation and the steps taken to prevent the crash were too limited. Overproduction of goods was the most serious issue which was failed to be addressed, and as a result contributed to the collapse of the economy. During the begging of the decade the market was filled with wide variety of new products such as cars, radios and vacuum cleaners. However by late 20s the production was outstripping demand, and as result the market offered too many products which could not be sold.
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How far was the decision to rollback past the 38th parallel a military and political blunder by the USA?
Although pushing forward is actually not considered protecting, in this case it was. It is stated that in some terms the best form of defence is offense, this is correct in this instance. This is because if the Chinese and N.Korean's are defending the USA attacks they will not be able to attack S.Korea, also if the USA takes N.Korea they would have a bigger military and more land. This made the decision to rollback first-rate as if they attacked it would be harder for the N.Koreans/China to attack S.Korea. Another reason why the decision to rollback made logical sense was because the USA was already prepared.
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Roosevelt spoke for the first time directly to the American people on the 12th March 1933, he ensured them that the banks were now safe and that there was no longer any reason for them to withdraw money, the American people put their trust in them and give him a chance, therefore the banking crises was. For Roosevelt to achieve this he introduced two Act's the Emergency Banking Relief Act and the Glass-Steagall Act. One of Roosevelt's 'Brains' Trusters' felt that the 'American capitalism was saved in eight days' because of Roosevelt's actions.
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Moreover, tradition Chinese parents, most of the time; favor the males more than the females. "I was lucky as a girl to never ever be thought of as any less than my brother. The only thing that mattered was what you were to do in life, and it wasn't about money. It was about teaching, or learning." Lin states. (Google) During her childhood Maya Lin found it easy to keep herself entertained, whether by reading or by building miniature towns.
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His slaves may have been members of his 'family' but they were units of production as well. (Wood 12) Monticello's profitability was based on the exploitation of slave labor. In broader terms this was true of the economy of Virginia, and of the entire American South. However, Jefferson's racism extended beyond this explanation. Slaves were a significant element of Jefferson's wealth. However, he was wealthy enough that he could have afforded, from a strictly economic sense, to release many more of his slaves. He did not support this situation because he believed that they were inferior and would pose a threat to white people.
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In Seattle, 1999 the WTO protest took place. This protest which had over 50,000 people at one time turned into a violent riot. Protests can lead to violence and usually cause disruption. There were many protests against the Vietnam War. Most of them were very peaceful and not violent in any way. One event shocked the nation on May 6, 1970 where the Ohio National Guard open fired on peaceful protesters and killed four students at Kent Sate. Our society needs protesters because they are very patriotic just like the soldiers fighting.
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To what extent did the American Civil War succeed in removing the two main causes of conflict: slavery and sectionalism, between the North and South?
The most reliable view is provided by Kennet M Stampp, who demonstrates that sectionalism was a culmination of these factors which together were a major cause of conflict. He uses a variety of sources, both contemporary and secondary, to provide a balanced evaluation. This is juxtaposed to other historians who may have used a limited range of sources or been influenced by the predominant view of the time. Other historians, however, have singled out slavery to be the cause of the sectional crisis, and indeed the war.
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It is hard to pinpoint the exact beginnings of slavery in the United States. It is known, for example, that the Native Indians practised some forms of slavery in small minorities. However the Atlantic Slave Trade, begun in the late 1500s
On average, during the 'middle passage', where ships from the ports went directly to the Americas, one sixth of slaves died, either from disease or onboard rebellion. Even so, this barbaric practice was extremely profitable; goods such as sugar, tobacco, precious metals, ivory, dyewoods, and gum were also traded, and made considerable profits for those involved. Therefore in the 18th century, when trade slaving was at its peak, most of the voyages were financed or sponsored by private sources, desperate to get their share in this lucrative business.
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The morality of slaves is not an issue. We all know that it is wrong. The truth though is that approximately twelve million2 slaves were exported from their homelands, against their wishes across the Atlantic. The slave trade started to die out in the 1830's after Britain abolished slavery and used the Royal Navy to police the high seas to enforce this decision. Unfortunately, the southern states of America already had a self sustaining slave population. Slave owners had no inhibitions about slaves reproducing as after just a few years they had another slave to either work for them or to be sold on.
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Explain the principle events of the preceding ten years or so that led the eleven slaveowning southern American states to secede from the union in 1861.
They did not like the power of the slave holders in the south who dominated congress, and so wanted something done which would prevent the spread of slavery from the south into the north. The main industry within America was the cotton industry. As the cotton industry expanded, the need for slavery also expanded and more slaves were needed to keep up with the demand for it. As the demand for cotton increased, so did the feeling that slavery was a necessity, because they were free labour.
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The whites are eating away at the valuable resources of the land and casting the fruits of nature away, unworthy and untouched. The Native Americans conclude the whites to be the dreadful creatures their ancestors feared and dreaded, the creatures which would lead to the world's inevitable destruction and downfall. The whites begin hoarding the land, taking what could never belong to them, the trespassers, the intruders. They harbor no connection with the land that provides for them, nor are they aware of what may become of the land if it is treated harshly.
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The idea that the institution of slavery is immovable is seen in both texts of Stowe and Elkins There is no resolution, to the turmoil that occurs in Uncle Tom's Cabin; all the commotion results in a change back to the standard. Events in history not only support the unwavering American ideals of the time, but strengthen slavery and segregation as well for many years to come after 1860. It is the behavior and actions of the whites that will immortalize the racist endeavor; the treatment of blacks will not change according to Stowe.
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But Eleanor disliked Albany and was soon very happy to leave. Franklin liked his newfound success in politics and his career prospered swiftly. He soon became an early backer of Woodrow Wilson as he ran for president, for his efforts he was awarded the job of Assistant Secretary of the Navy, the same job that propelled Eleanor's Uncle Teddy to presidency. But Eleanor liked Washington about as much as she liked Albany and spent little time there. In the years after their move to Washington, Franklin Roosevelt had contracted polio and it was now up to Eleanor to keep his name before the public.
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Profits also became the prime concern of companies over the welfare of their workers. "The Square Deal" was Roosevelt's policy to deal with many of the social and economic problems in American society. It aimed to ensure that all Americans received an equal deal in life. It is necessary to look at this 'deal' and his other policies to analyse whether they actually improved the problems or addressed the issues, and if so, to what extent did they resolve or deal with them.
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