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AS and A Level: History of the USA, 1840-1968
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While many say Hiroshima was unjustified due to no military affiliation, not only was it military headquarters, like I've mentioned, the Japanese were planning the same. A few days prior to the bombing, American planes had flown over Hiroshima and dropped leaflets; warning citizens to evacuate the city immediately (Veracity). All seriousness was lost upon contact with the local government. Assertively, they assured citizens that the threat no longer existed (Veracity). Our aim was benevolent, had there been no interference.
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The US department of justice gained a court injunction; forcing the National Guard to withdraw. President Eisenhower also ordered their withdrawal through Faubus. However, due to a resistant crowd of white racists, the nine students were still unable to enrol into the school. Even though the courts and the President helped to grant the students access, the racial attitudes among the community were unchanged, resulting in the public protest/crowd.
- Word count: 444
To what extent was the NAACP responsible for the successes of the Civil Rights Campaign in the years 1945
Furthermore, American citizens could take the government to court in cases where it appeared they had acted in a way to infringe any constitutional right. Experienced civil rights lawyers, such as Thurgood Marshall, were used by the NAACP to support the cases where citizens took the authorities to court, two such successful cases were Morgan v. Virginia (1946) and Smith v. Allwright (1944). The Morgan v. Virginia case was successful for the NAACP; after being taken to the Supreme Court it won the battle to make segregation on interstate buses illegal.
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In Alexandra in 1951 they protested at the fact that the local black school would close during the cotton harvest so that the black children could work in the fields. And in 1953 they organised a boycott of a newly built school in Lafayette protesting that its facilities were inferior to a local white school. The Supreme Court started to interpret the Constitution more liberally in the field of civil rights. So during the Truman presidency, it rulings in a number of cases appeared to challenge Plessy vs.
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Overall, there were about 18 million women in the workforce, with most of them in the service-sector. Most women took up service-sector jobs, especially in Washington D.C., where they worked for the government as typists, secretaries, or clerks. These women were known as "government girls" and worked long hours for government agencies. Even the women enlisting in the WAC (army) or the WAVE (navy) held mainly clerical jobs and did not see real battle on the front. A vast majority of the women worked here, although propaganda we see now suggests otherwise. Factories were one of the biggest concerns.
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Assess the short term significance of Thurgood Marshall in helping Black Americans gain improved civil rights in the USA in the period 1947-1967
This provides evidence of Marshall's significance in achieving victory in the landmark that was the Brown vs. Topeka case. Source 1 agrees and states that "Marshall was a towering presence" and this trait helped him to achieve a "triumphant victory" in the Brown vs. Topeka case in 1954. Source 2 agrees and says that Marshall's victory in Brown vs. Topeka was "the turning point from which legal basis for segregation in America was destroyed". However despite this source 2 also provides evidence of limitations to the true significance of the Brown vs.
- Word count: 1899
How far do you agree with the view that the Wall Street crash was responsible for the depression of the early 1930s?
I believe that the main contributing factor, which was responsible for the Great Depression, is the Bull Market itself and the acts of Speculation. The Bull Market is considered as being a risky investment because once you invest, the stock exchange prices could either flourish which would be beneficial, or there is a risk of the stock exchange prices for your investment to fail. However with the apparent prosperity and Boom in the 1920s, risks of the Bull Market were invisible, and success was sought to be the outcome of each investment.
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Roosevelt believed that 'combination and concentration should not be prohibited but suspended and within reasonable limits controlled'. Theodore invited William Howard Taft; Roosevelt made him the secretary of war, and then later on won the 1908 presidential election. William Taft preferred Law to Politics as he was appointed a federal court judge at 34, but his wife did not like the idea of this therefore forced him into politics. We can understand that Taft increased the number of anti trust suits against companies in fact doubling them in comparison to Roosevelt.
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They suffered from poverty, high unemployment, lack of health services and high crime rates. Riots were caused in mostly ghetto areas by acts or rumours of police brutality. The most serious riots where in New York, Detroit and The Watts area of Los Angeles. The assassination of Martin Luther King in 1968 lead to riots in 125 American cities. There were shootings, arson and looting in and around black American ghettos. Buildings were set on fire and burned down during these riots, and hundreds of people were injured and killed. Many black American neighbourhoods were burnt out and abandoned by their families and thousands of blacks were arrested.
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Douglass policy of applying the principle of popular sovereignty to the Kansas-Nebraska issue was not entirely reasonable.
Likewise, the Democrats believed every person deserved freedom as it was given by God. Source B suggests that there were other reasons for Douglas's bill. One of the reasons was to construct a transcontinental railroad based in Chicago as its eastern terminus. Douglas owned the Chicago site thus made it easier. Besides, he also made the bill to gain support from the Southerners for his Presidential Election. The Southern Senators first rejected the bill because the territory was located in the northern half of the Louisiana Purchase, which prohibited slavery, but Douglas decided to declare the Missouri Compromise void and integrated the principle of popular sovereignty.
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Lincoln's Election. Sources A, C and E support the assertion which says Lincolns election meant that armed conflict between North and South became unavoidable.
Same goes to source B, that armed conflict nor secession was mentioned. Source C challenges the statement because just like source A, it also accuses the North. It also states that the South did not agree with Lincoln being the president and claimed that they shouldn't submit themselves to Lincoln's policy and only those who voted for him do so. Furthermore, it was prompted that the government who should've protected them became the one who would destroy them. The source also affirmed that Georgia was a free and independent state who could secede whenever she wanted to, this shows that the South did feel as though they would want secession soon.
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Did Nixon even deserve to be brought down by his failures? The Watergate scandal, probably the most crushing event for Nixon's campaign, immensely humiliated Nixon personally. The scandal was devastating for Nixon, at first no-one suspected Nixon's involvement but slowly, more and more evidence revealed its self to the people, pointing slowly and centrally at Nixon. It revealed CREEP to the people- the dirty tricks squad- the link was quickly made to Nixon showing his attempts to sabotage any opponents. At this point he still denied any involvement with this - stating 'there will be no white-wash at the White House'.
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The question that will be investigated is, to what extent was the case of Brown v Board of Education ineffective during the civil rights movement, and what other steps were taken to establish equal rights?
However, this case still held that "separate but equal" was unconstitutional. It was not until 1950 in Sweatt v Painter that ruled Plessy v Ferguson unconstitutional and integrated law and graduate schools. In fact, it was Sweatt v Painter that was the landmark case overturning Plessy, and not Brown v Board of Education in 1954, in which Earl Warren overturned separate but equal and integrated all public facilities. No time table was established in each of the Court cases. This problem was solved the next year through Brown v Board of Education II, establishing that school systems must abolish racism with "all deliberate speed".
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The Missouri Compromise. Since the bulk of the settlers in the territory of Missouri were southerners, it was implied that if Missouri were to be welcomed to the Union as a state it would have to be a slave state.
Soon after, the Missouri compromise of 1820 was the agreement that politicians made to evenly balance slave states and free states. Additionally, it was established that slavery would not be permissible to prolong in the territories north of the 36? 30' latitude line (Jordan 247). The predicament with the Missouri Compromise was that the compromise was going to boost sectional division by outlining what the free states are in the North and what the slave states are in the South (Jordan 247).
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How far is it accurate to suggest that in 1945 the chances of improving the situation for black Americans were minimal?
For example, on buses black people had to sit on one side while white people sat on the other. This segregation and sense of social hierarchy meant that in the southern states many whites' saw themselves above the blacks. White children learnt to talk down to blacks and black people were never invited into a white person's home. On top of segregation, southern states also found ways to override the voting rights given to black people, due to the fifteenth amendment. These methods included unfair literacy tests and the right to vote if one's grandfather had been able to do so.
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How far is it accurate to say that significant progress had been made in segregation from 1955 to 1963?
After being arrested and fined, Martin Luther King proposed a boycott by all blacks of the city bus transit system, relying instead on carpools to get around, or taxis driven by blacks who modified their fares to be equal to that of a bus journey. The protest lasted over a year, during which protesters were attacked, and buildings firebombed by white supremacists. However, once nationwide attention was brought to the cause, the tide turned in the boycott's favour; in June 1956 the supreme court ruled that public transport segregation in Alabama was unconstitutional, a ruling Alabama finally accepted in December.
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Then in May 1956, he was involuntarily committed to Greystone Park, a mental institution in New Jersey. There he remained for the next five years as he worsened to the point where he could not play the guitar, type, or even hold a pen. In the late 1950s, an admirer named Bob Gleason would pick Woody up on the weekends and take him to East Orange, New Jersey, where the singer would receive visitors. It was there that Bob Dylan came to meet Woody in early 1961.
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now declares that the rebels cannot try to destroy the gov't and just rejoin unhurt if unsuccessful - Lincoln now begins to draft an emancipation proclamation * Union strategy now turns to TOTAL WAR: 1) Blockade the southern coasts 2) Liberate the slaves 3) Seize Mississippi River 4) Chop South in pieces 5) Capture Richmond, the capital 6) Grind the South into submission The War at Sea * The Union's attempt to blockade southern ports was shaky at first and blockade-running was very profitable for a time * Biggest Confederate threat was the Merrimack that was renamed the Virginia -
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the agency - it expired in 1872 Johnson: The Tailor President * Johnson became president by the assassin's bullet * Humble beginnings from Tennessee * He left the South once it seceded - yet didn't understand or agree with the North and distrusted by South * Described a man with out a true place in his own country * Champion of states' rights and the Constitution Presidential Reconstruction * Lincoln favored a smooth transition of the South back into the Union and favored a 10% plan - (10% of voters of the 1860 election had to pledge allegiance to the Union)
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The main events of the Civil Rights movement happened between 1945 and 1968. However black Americans did not suddenly start campaigning for better rights in 1945, organisations and campaigns had existed before then.
The main events of the Civil Rights movement happened between 1945 and 1968. However black Americans did not suddenly start campaigning for better rights in 1945, organisations and campaigns had existed before then. And also the Second World War encouraged black Americans to campaign more vigorously.They had fought alongside whites and also fought against the racism of Hitler. The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) took a number of cases to the Supreme Court to challenge educational segregation.
- Word count: 1111
To what extent did the political, economic and social status of black Americans vary across the USA at the end of the Second World War?
As always, political change came first. Prior to the war in the southern states, only 2 percent of the black population could vote, yet by the end of the war in 1945, 15 percent had this right. Although this number was still small, it did show the first signs of an America that was on the way to racial equality. In the southern states where racial oppression was more present than the northern states, Civil rights groups began to appear, as they had begun to do all across America.
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who believed in laissez-faire economics, in which the government would not intervene in business. During the Great Depression, whereby the nation succumbed to one of the fiercest events in history, the people of America turned to the government to solve the problem but not much was done under Hoovers rule. This made the people feel that Roosevelt was the only alternative if any form of state welfare was to be provided.
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Clearly, a great deal of progress had been made towards achieving racial equality in political rights by 1968 because, for the first time, the government had passed a definitive Act to ensure the rights of black people. However, there were still ways in which blacks and whites were politically unequal. This inequality was particularly pronounced in the southern states. For example, by 1965, while 71% of southern whites were registered to vote, only 62% of blacks in the south were on the electoral register.
- Word count: 775
To what extent did the actions of Rosa Parks contribute to the reversal of the Montgomery, Alabama bus ordinance?
in 1943 as secretary * Worked as seamstress * Advisor to NCAAP Youth Council * Worked with Voters League * Attended a civil rights workshop weeks before her arrest (Highlander Folk School, Tenesse)1 Boycott December 1st, 1955 * Parks refused to give up her seat after coming home from work at department store * Arrested and fined $14 * The Montgomery Improvement Association, leader Martin Luther King Jr., started bus boycott (December 5th, 1955) * One day protest * African-Americans refused to ride bus and walked, carpooled, biked and took cabs designated for blacks to work2 Montgomery Bus Boycott * Protest lasted 381 days * Martin Luther King Jr.
- Word count: 2095
How the novel "Jubilee" shows the changes in southern society caused by the American Civil War. Essay
Referring to the novel Jubilee, on pages 268-269 it shows how after the war there was much damage done to houses and factories. When reconstruction began in 1865, the economy went up immediately when some of the lands where plantation took place were good enough to plant and agriculture was reborn. As cotton being the king and being sold higher than before, money was big in the South during this time. In Jubilee, it's demonstrated throughout reconstruction how Vyry and her family finally find a good home and have a good place for planting and they work very well throughout.
- Word count: 974