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AS and A Level: History of the USA, 1840-1968

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  1. Revision notes - the USA 1945 to 1980

    By 1960 nearly all Americans had a TV and a car. 2. Women workers. Women were needed in the factories to help with war production. The number of working mothers also increased rapidly. The percentage of women working rose from 27 to 37% by the end of the war. This had long term effects on the status of women in society. 300,000 women joined the army, 7 million were needed in the workforce. Rosie the riveter was a famous poster to attract women into the factories. After the war most went back to their civilian lives, but many women carried on working, and attitudes to women working had changed forever. 3. Blacks.

    • Word count: 6838
  2. Rosa Parks and her significance to the Civil Rights movement.

    and she was a very significant within the Civil Rights movement. In December 1943, Rosa joined the Montgomery group, and was elected for volunteer secretary. She worked with the organization's state president, Edgar Daniel Nixon. The NAACP played a significant role in the African- American community. The NAACP challenged the right of local school board to segregate. On 17 May 1954, the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in education was illegal under the constitution. However, many Southern States openly resisted the ruling. By the end of 1956, in some Southern States not a black child attended a mixed school.

    • Word count: 1304
  3. Rosalia Vallejo. Prior to the Bear Flag Revolt, which occurred in 1846, Californio Women lived at peace with the white population. In many cases, these women disregarded the concept of race as an essential definer of their lifestyle, as has been exemplifi

    However, this sentiment regarding the American man was not entirely widespread throughout all of California. Dorotea Valdez exemplifies this particular attitude. Valdez recognized the fact that while some white men were rather respectable, others were not. For example, she developed a high level of respect for a European merchant by the name of David Spence- who she referred to as an honest and intelligent man. Dorotea speaks of this man with immense admiration. Although, she recognizes his misdeeds as a smuggler back in the days, she does not retract from her firm stance, "this does not detract one bit from his good reputation.

    • Word count: 3253
  4. Why Did Americans Fear Mass Immigration between 1890 & 1920?

    Although nearly all Americans at that time had only recently immigrated themselves, Anglo-Saxon Superiority was prevalent. White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs), especially those of British or German descent were looked upon as elite. Many WASPs did not drink at all; this made many immigrants - especially the in coming Catholics from Southern Europe Italy, who practiced drinking wine at church - to be considered heavy drinkers or drunks. Another fear of immigrants was the idea that the newly migrated citizens would be left -wing and socialists.

    • Word count: 725
  5. Containment, the basic idea surrounding most of the United States post-war foreign policies, was proposed by George Kennan in 1947.

    This new rising tension between the US and the USSR was the cause of most of the world's tension for the rest of the century, and also the reasoning behind the policy of the US, including containment, after the war. Containment, the basic idea surrounding most of the United States' post-war foreign policies, was proposed by George Kennan in 1947.

    • Word count: 405
  6. How important was the strength of opposition to impact the New Deal in the period 1933-1937.

    Politically there was enough opposition to create severe importance however there were also other schemes that contributed to impacting the New Deal, but I believe due to the New Deals success in the beginning created no opportunity for oppositional groups to contribute any significance, no matter how strong they were to influence the New Deal. From the Left, many activists had their own ideologies and beliefs, many like Huey Long, Francis Townsend and Father Coughlin believed the New Deal "were not going far enough" which Coughlin envisaged, yet he initially stated "the New Deal is Christ's Deal"8 however he turned

    • Word count: 2121
  7. Assess the significance of the influence of internal migration on social and political tensions within the USA in the period 1815-1917.

    However, the Compromise went against everything the Union had been constructed upon and all sense of unity between the North and South was soon lost. "But this momentous question (the Missouri Compromise), like a firebell in the night awakened and filled me with terror. I considered it the knell of the Union."1 There is no doubting that the Missouri Compromise can be comprehended as the beginning of the end of the Union. It is clear to see that internal migration was a major influence upon politics from looking at the admission of California and Texas to the Union.

    • Word count: 1967
  8. The American Civil War as the Turning Point in the Making of a Nation,

    The industrial capitalist, through their political spokesmen, the Republicans, had succeeded in capturing the state and using it as an instrument to strengthen their economic position...while the war was waged on the field and through Negro emancipation, in Congress' halls the victory was made secure by the passage of tariff, banking, public-land, railroad, and contract labor legislation.' There is no doubt that the South and the North were fighting to maintain political and economic power within the union. The Senate had two representatives from each state but representation in the House of Representatives depended on population and the population in the North was much larger.

    • Word count: 2461
  9. What was the short term significance of settlement in Kansas in the 1850s and 1860s?

    This greatly angered Northerners, creating 'a hell of a storm'. In fact many believe that 'No single act of slave power ever spread greater consternation, produced more lasting results upon the popular mind, or did so much to arouse the North.' 2 This shows the first signs of tensions that were becoming more apparent between the Northern and Southern Congressmen. These initial tensions began to increase and soon this conflict between the North and the South spread beyond the point of mere heated debates and soon, rather inevitably, developed into acts of physical violence.

    • Word count: 2425
  10. How far do you agree with the view that the Wall Street crash was responsible for the depression of the early 1930s?

    The lenders, often including large banks, which had been fuelling the boom, called in their money and the market collapsed. When people weren't able to repay loans to fragile banks, which lacked sufficient reserves, 'bankruptcies and bank failures multiplied'. However, as the accredited Historian David Reynolds states; 'In itself the stock market crash of October 1929 was not decisive, in any case only about 1% of the population owned securities in 1929'. The importance of the stock market crash was that it showed an economic future which was uncertain.

    • Word count: 971
  11. Scottsboro Rape Trials. In the 1930s it was not uncommon for the young and unemployed to hitch rides on passing freight trains. Such was the case on March 25 1931 when nine young, boys of African American descent ages 13-21 hopped aboard a train in Tennes

    Angry and seeking revenge, some of the white youth made false reports to authorities that the blacks had assaulted the white women that were still aboard the train. When the train arrived in Paint Rock, the young teens were greeted by the police, everyone was taken into custody including all nine black boys and two teenage girls, Victoria Price and Ruby Bates. Upon arrest Victoria Price and Ruby Bates confessed to the police all nine boys Olen Montgomery (age 17), Clarence Norris (age 19), Haywood Patterson (age 18), Ozie Powell (age 16), Willie Roberson (age 16), Charlie Weems (age 16), Eugene Williams (age 13), and brothers Andy (age 19)

    • Word count: 563
  12. What in your view was the short term significance of Malcolm X?

    Overall it shows that although Malcolm had potential to be a leader in the fight for equality, he failed to do so, due to his ideologies and his policy of violence. I agree with the sources view that Malcolm X did have the leadership potential, but it was clear that Black American's had wanted to go about reducing racial discrimination with use of a non violent approach, this is shown in X's rivalry with Martin Luther King who always had fonder support from Black American's.

    • Word count: 2013
  13. Prohibition Laws in the United States. n the 1800s, the dry movement began in the United States. The dry movement was the first step in the process of Prohibition.

    Kansas was the first state to put the ban of alcohol in effect. Protestant Christians made sure that the ban's strength was getting stronger. Gluttony, one of the seven deadly sins was their main motivation in their stand for the ban of alcohol. An amendment was introduced in 1917 to prohibit alcohol nationwide. This amendment became ratified in thirty eight states. The amendment states that: "After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited."

    • Word count: 847
  14. In this essay I will be demonstrating how government policies were the main reason why the Indians lost control of the Great Plains. However I will also show how other factors also contributed

    So it was inevitable that the Americans and Indians would clash and a conflict between the two was unavoidable. The government also promoted the destruction of the buffalo so that they could force the Indians to live on the reservations therefore controlling them. In 1874, Congress passed a bill protecting the buffalo, but president Ulysses S. Grant did not pass it as law. This shows how the government wanted to exterminate so that the Indians would have no food supply and have to live on the reservations.

    • Word count: 824
  15. Personal Motives during the Civil War

    His military life is destroying his personal life. When he arrives home, he is informed that his father in law had died, and left him in charge of the family house. Lee is heartbroken at this reality. So much has changed since he left for war that he takes the death, which hurt his beloved wife, upon himself. "He felt a sudden wave of guilt, as though if he'd been here... it would all be different" (P. 12). Lee feels he is at fault for Mary's illness, and ultimately all the dismay within his family.

    • Word count: 1959
  16. Reasons for the Missouri Compromise

    Those within Missouri wanted more slaves to be allowed in so that they could capitalise on the economic advantage which the other agricultural states in the south had been able to gain from. However, James Tallmadge (a Republican) believed that for moral issues, the introduction of new slaves should be prohibited and that the children of slaves already in Missouri should be freed when they turned 25. The proposed motion divided Congress; however, the House of Representatives managed to pass the motion due to the support of the northern congressmen where they had the majority, although in the senate where the North did not have a majority, the bill was not passed and therefore didn't succeed.

    • Word count: 735
  17. Robert F. Kennedy

    At the time, it was the highest mountain in Canada that had not yet been climbed. It was named in honor of his brother John F. Kennedy after his assassination. Robert F. Kennedy later graduated from the University of Virginia School of Law. Robert F. Kennedy was a great deal of help to his brother John during his presidential campaign. In 1961, after the election, he was appointed U.S. Attorney General. He fought crime in the United States and stood up for African American civil rights, helping them exercise their right to vote, attend integrated schools and use all public facilities.

    • Word count: 505
  18. The Underground Railroad

    Often times, the runaway would be led to this station, or safe place, by a conductor, people black and white who were sympathetic to the runaways and knew the routes to freedom ("Secret Language" par.3). Sometimes a slave would attend five or six stations before walking on free soil. A famous conductor was Harriet Tubman. To slaves she was known as Moses because she led so many out of bondage and into the promise land. Tubman made nineteen trips to Maryland bringing a total of three-hundred slaves to freedom ("Underground Railroad" par.18).

    • Word count: 1115
  19. Short term impact of Malcolm X

    There were so many sides to Malcolm X and from a young age could be described as lost with no purpose, after he was told that a career as a lawyer was "no realistic goal for a nigger,"8. As times advanced and after his ten year imprisonment he adopted the Muslim religion, joining the Nation of Islam led by Elijah Muhammad who believed that "white society actively worked to keep African-Americans from empowering themselves and achieving political, economic and social success"9.

    • Word count: 2204
  20. John Browns Reign of Terrorism John Brown was an American Abolitionist who promoted and supported armed conflict in order to end all slavery.

    His Calvinist parents taught him and his 7 siblings that people were all created equal. From the beginning, him and his family loathed slavery. When John Brown was just twelve-years-old he witnessed the brutal beating of a young slave boy, just his age, which scarred him forever. This event led to his lifelong battle to end slavery. At age sixteen Brown left his family and began his lifelong endeavors as a terrorist fighting for a good cause, yet in an immoral way. On the evening of May 24, 1856, John Brown conducted the event known as the "The Pottawatomie Creek Massacre," viciously slaying five pro-slavery white men, assuming they owned slaves.

    • Word count: 1265
  21. How far did the methods used by the civil rights campaigners change in the period 1954- 1964?

    Although there is a well-built argument that there was little change in the methods of civil rights campaigners in the period 1954 to 1964 it is a less significant argument to the contrary argument that there was a drastic change in the years 1954 to 1964. Education is a very important issue this give black people the opportunity to not work in agricultural jobs. The methods of protest changed in education because some of the education protest worked therefore black protester are educated and they self-esteem radically increased thus can fight for civil rights more efficiently and demand more equal rights.

    • Word count: 676
  22. History of Alaska. The Purchase of Alaska shows an example of Manifest Destiny. Manifest Destiny was based on the idea of moving towards and dominating the West.

    In 1861, the American Civil War began. The Lincoln administration couldn't deal with the Russian Foreign Office during that period so the Russians wanted until the war was over. The Russian Foreign minister began negotiations with William Seward, Secretary of State of America, without authorization from President Johnson. Johnson left the decision to his Cabinet, which agreed, to the idea of purchasing Russian America. Seward and the Foreign minister agreed on 7 million dollars but later added $200,000 to make up for the loss in exchange. This transaction was roughly 2.3 � an acre.

    • Word count: 1316
  23. The History of the Confederate Flag and why it is Controversial Today

    In July of 1861, two stars, making a total of 11 stars total, were added with the addition of Tennessee and North Carolina as part of the Confederate union. In November of 1861, two stars, making a total of 13 stars total, "were added in claims of the addition of Kentucky and Missouri as part of the Confederate union".2 "The "Stars and Bars" often caused confusion in battle amongst the Confederate and Union soldiers because of their similarity and a new flag to represent the Confederate states had to be used".3 The "Battle Flag" was used as substitution of the

    • Word count: 1756
  24. Compare the contributions of Martin Luther King and Lyndon B Johnson to the gaining of black civil rights in 1964/5.

    King through his career as a Baptist minister was able to use religion to create a moral legitimacy for the movement. He also used religion to attack the white clergy, he highlighted the hypocrisy of them teaching the Christian ethics of equality and "love they neighbour". King was an advocate of non violent protest, something which he learnt from the teaching of Gandhi. He argued through the course of his life that true progress could only be made when the cycle of violence and hate was broken.

    • Word count: 1445
  25. Gender Roles in Combat Duty: Are Women Strong Enough for Combat?

    The differences between the policies of the Army and the department of Defense are examined (DoD). Varying opinions about the impact of women on military readiness are tackled (Angelia 15). Also explored is the influence of cultural norms on the way women were given assignments in the military based on history. In reports and various statistical studies on women's assignments and combat from RAND Cooperation states that "the integration of women had no major effect on readiness, single mothers were compared to single fathers regarding the impact each had on the unit." The study found that numerically, single fathers were more common in the military and that "single parents regardless of the gender placed a burden on the unit and impacted readiness" (Harrell and Miller 1997).

    • Word count: 1369

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