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AS and A Level: History of the USA, 1840-1968
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The attempt of 9 black children to enrol in the Little Rock High school was the first real test to the case. The reaction of the governor Ovarl Faubus to block the entrance of the school with state troopers attracted great media attention in favour of the Civil Rights movement. Sympathy was turned towards the well-dressed black children that were being threatened by brutal racist white southerners. It was the governor's reluctance to obey the court order that forced the then president Eisenhower to intervene , the 10 000 state trooper were brought under federal control and ordered to escort the children to school and keep aback the white southerners .
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The source of money provided millions with the previously deprived purchasing power, and they began to purchase the products of many businesses. This increased income for the businesses, and gradually businesses opened its factories again, and started to recover from its crash. Secondly, Roosevelt sought to help the banking system regain the confidence of the people. With the Bank Holiday of 1933, Roosevelt closed down all banks, so that the government could reorganize them, which it did with the Emergency Banking Relief Act (authorized government to monitor the banks' finances to determine its condition)
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In addition, many moved farther away from the churches, which decreased church membership. The religious fervor decreased to the extent that the Puritan ministers relied on the Half-Way Covenant in order to attract people to the churches, and many, such as the Arminians, preached that individual free will and good works determined salvation, and challenged the Puritan idea of predestination. Similarly, before the Second Great Awakening, religion became more liberal: many people, such as Jefferson and Franklin supported Deism, which embraced rationalism, and thus supported science over the Bible and reason over revelation.
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Black regiments proved to be efficient and deadly and the reputation of the Harlem Hellfighters was knows by many. Perhaps the greatest significance of the war on the civil rights movement was that it raised awareness amongst whites and motivated even more blacks to protest for equality. Black soldiers were fighting for democracy and against blatant racism in Europe and to many this seemed rather hypocritical. The "double V" campaign grew massively during the war, calling for not just a victory in Europe and the Pacific but also at home.
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The local community took up her case and a full scale boycott soon started. It was the newly appointed Minister of a local Church who came to lead this boycott, Martin Luther King. 381 days later and the boycott finished with the supreme court deciding that the Brown ruling of a 1954 should apply to busses as well, and as a result be de-segregated. This was a massive victory for the local black community in Montgomery, but perhaps even more importantly catapulted King straight into the political limelight.
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Evidently, this opposition was the most important reason; without it, Truman would've had much greater chance to pursue the changes which he recommended. Another factor contributing to slow progress towards racial equality was the opposition among the general public. Truman's ideas were simply not comprehensive enough to deal with the amount of racism which existed in the country. Specifically in the south, where still many people, mainly Dixiecrats refused to support Truman and his policies.
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Kerouac developed his own imaginary world in his mind. He then documented this creation in newspapers. The short articles then led to his first novel entitled, The Town and the City, which was a based on a summary of a news article in the New York Times (Maher 176). One of the other influences on The Town and the City was an impressionistic prose writer named, Thomas Wolfe. He was introduced to Kerouac during his early life in high school by a fellow student. The Kerouac family could not afford to send Jack to college so a local priest recommended that he try out for a football scholarship (Clark 32).
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To what extent was the separate but equal decision of the Supreme Court the main obstacle facing black Americans in achieving civil rights before 1941?
Also, it can be argued that the lack of unity between the black Americans meant a further obstacle as their opposite views created a number of different ideas for the community, however there is also evidence of the strong bond between Blacks in America through the use of newspapers and civil rights groups, suggesting this obstacle is decreased in importance. These obstacles are incredibly important when understanding the problems Blacks faced when achieving civil rights before 1941 and suggest that the 'separate but equal' decision may not have been the main barrier.
To what extent does a fear of Communism explain the changes in American policy towards immigration in the 1920s?
Due to a fear of Communism in America in the 1920s, American policy on immigration grew increasingly more hostile. After the Russian Revolution in 1917, in which the first Communist state was established, many Americans believed that 'new' immigrants, mainly from Eastern Europe, were trying to provoke a similar revolution in America. This fear increased the hostility towards immigrants as Communism was seen as a great threat to the politics of America. An example of this hostility is Mitchell Palmer, America's anti-Communist/-Anarchist Attorney General.
To what extent was the economic boom of the 1920s caused by the development of mass production methods?
This meant products could be produced quicker and for cheaper so that more people are able to buy them. This resulted in higher profits being made and therefore improving the economy. Also, due to the standardisation of production, more jobs were created and therefore more people were able to purchase products as their incomes increased, further fuelling the boom. An example of a company which benefited greatly is the Ford Motor Company. With mass production, Ford were producing one car a minute cheaply and efficiently. This meant that more cars could be purchased as supply was meeting demand and therefore higher profits were made and the economic boom was further fuelled.
On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was and an African American Women, who worked as a seamstress, boarded a Montgomery bus to go home from work. She was arrested for violating the laws of segregation as she quietly did not give up her seat to a white man. Ms parks appealed her conviction and challenged the legality of segregation. Evidence that Rosa Parks was arrested can be seen in the finger print cards taken when she was arrested. The card clearly states her name "Rosa Parks".
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Davis simply did not have such finances available to him. Although, he attempted to drive up the price of bonds by burning the South's cotton crops in 1861 and creating a world scarcity, this also meant that they could not export and this damaged their financial position further. The fact that they could not now export cotton legalised the Northern-imposed blockade. Lincoln can also be accredited the fruitful appointment of Gorgas who was extremely efficient in managing the wealth of Northern supplies.
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Even the 1830 Removal Act, brutal in its implementation recognised the 'Five Civilised Tribes' as autonomous ad external nations. The problem was the 1871 Indian Appropriations Act. Here, tribes and lands ceased to be viewed as independent countries. The inhabitants of these regions were removed and placed on reservation, often in Oklahoma. Significantly, the issue of Native Americans was placed under direct control of Congress, who acted on Native issues without and constitutional authorization to do so or legal obligations to comply with. Living on a reservation meant one must give up their political culture, their idea of a clan rather than a nuclear family unit, as Brogan describes, and subjugation to both the Indian Bureau, curiously a subdivision of the war department.
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This essay describes the origins of the Civil Rights Movement in America, it also addresses the position of black people in America today.
The black people still had to fight for their rights but now they had the law on their side. The fight for desegregation on public buses was started in Montgomery by Rosa Parks who is known all over the world today, the trend then spread and people fought for desegregation in other places as well. When Martin Luther King held his speech "I have a dream" in 1963, I believe he lighted a hope in many African Americans. (O'Callaghan p. 112-113) Making the Civil Rights Act a law was the first real decision that should make black and white people equal, but even then, there had to be changes in peoples minds and not only in law.
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and then in 1870 the 15th amendment was passed (The right of American citizens to vote shall not be denied because of race of colour). Between the late 1860's and 1950 there were 342 state laws brought in, which enabled the Southern states to ignore legislation, meaning African Americans continued to suffer discrimination and were treated as second class citizens.
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Wells. She was a southern protestor who believe in fighting the legalised segregation exerted by the federal governments. On numerous occasions she fought these measures, such as when a conductor asked her to stand for a white man in Ohio, and she resisted and was arrested. This was a result of the famous 'Plessy vs. Ferguson' court case, which paved the way for legalised segregation with its 'separate but equal' philosophy. Although she successfully sued the company, what in essence was the outcome of this behaviour is it merely fuelled the white propaganda and Wells on occasion after occasion underestimated the strength on this.
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The Americans saw the China takeover as a reason for them to get involved in stopping communism because they thought that they had failed to send enough support for the nationalists and the consequences were that the communists would become stronger and after they take control of Korea as well, the next target for the communists would be America. Furthermore in 1947 came the introduction of the Truman Doctrine, which was seen as a way to contain Soviet expansionism. The Truman Doctrine stated that all democracies, who were being pressured or attacked by the communists, would receive aid from the USA to help them fight against it.
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Firstly, government policies were responsible for the Bull market of the 1920s. Firstly, the government of the 1920s had essentially promoted speculation by allowing the Federal Reserve to keep interest rates low. This encouraged lending / borrowing, which meant that millions of Americans were able to buy now, pay later for their consumer goods - such as fridges, radios and cars. Similarly, by keeping interest rates low, the Federal Reserve essentially encouraged lending to those wanting the play the stock market, as low interest rates made 'buying on the margin' attractive.
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To what extent was the Brown v Topeka decision/ruling the most significant turning point for African American civil rights.
In 1954, the Court ruled that separate facilities were essentially unequal and therefore contrary to the Constitution. Though the Brown decision had a limited immediate impact, it was a turning point. Of all the federal institutions, the Supreme Court showed they no longer had the political difficulties concerning positive action over civil rights that were still present in Congress and the Presidency. Moreover, the verdict gave many southern black people a belief in the American political system and the Constitution that Martin Luther King and the other leaders were later able to exploit effectively.
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While King believed strongly in the importance of non-violent action, partly due to religious reasons, Malcolm X felt that violence used for "self defence" was acceptable. The ideas of these two very different men contradicted each other, which caused tension within the movement and meant there was a lack of unity during the 1960s. However, as both men began to acknowledge each other, their views changed slightly and moved closer towards a kind of middle ground, showing that, although they were divided, there could have been the potential for a much more united movement during the 1960s.
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How did anti-rights groups hinder the progress of Civil Rights for African Americans from 1865 to 1992?
The main aim of the KKK was to stop black people voting and holding public office, and relied on intimidation to frighten to frighten African Americans and Republicans who were sympathetic to their cause. However, this approach wasn't successful, as it didn't stop black people from voting, so the Klan turned to using violence, which had a huge impact on the black community across the southern states. If black people became too successful or influential, the Klan would often intervene, beating or murdering hundreds of black people.
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Attempts to enforce Prohibition in the USA were doomed to fail. How far do you agree with this opinion? (30 marks)
Prohibition was created mainly due to popular support of the public, as in years prior to the amendment, interest groups were growing in strength, which were largely supported by women, as women saw alcohol as a means for mean to oppress them; however others such as religious groups and business were in support. Religious groups, especially those who where strongly protestant and who were in support of the Republican party, thought alcohol to be the work of the devil, and fundamentally to blame for sinning.
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Agricultural business as a whole was large and well financed. Technical advances in agriculture and mass production led to a great increase in production, cereal production was once such area where there was a dramatic increase. The land they worked on was also an extremely profitable asset, as some farmers grew rich by selling their land to housing and industrial development. However the increased production in agriculture would also prove to be its downfall. Overproduction of cereal meant there was far too much of it. As there was too much grain there was no longer as much demand for it so the prices fell.
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When he made this statement, he was referring to the countries in Europe that were feeling pressured by the Soviets. He believed that once one nation gave in to Communism, it would be much easier for the Soviets to take control of the rest. So, if the United States had ignored the problem, European nations would have fallen like dominoes. Fearing this, the United States stepped in with several policies to contain Communism. The United States was successful in realizing early on that this was such a problem, and was also successful in implementing plans such as the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine to stop the rising fear in Eastern Europe.
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