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How did Russia change during 1881-1953?

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Introduction

How did Russia change during 1881-1953? Throughout this essay I shall discuss, key economic, political and changes within society in the period of 1881-1953. Also I will study how the 'power of the Government' changed and influenced other major issues in this period. Change occurred upon the death of Alexander II in 1881 when the power was passed to Alexander III. Alexander II was a Tsar liberator where as Alexander III was a reactionary Tsar, this was a significant change due to the fact Alexander III was seeking to restore Russia to that of the era of Nicholas I. Alexander II made many radical reforms, including an attempt to not to depend on a landed aristocracy controlling the poor, a move to developing Russia's natural resources and to thoroughly reform all branches of the administration. Alexander III main aims where to undo the reforms of his father, repression of opponents and to restore Russia's position internationally this was 'russification' and it was designed to take the sting out of those who wanted to reform Russia and to blind the Russian people around one person. Russification had a significant impact on the different cultures and nationalities, as Alexander wanted everyone to become 'Great Russians' and nothing else. ...read more.

Middle

This in many ways was a change to Russia as the working class were in power however Stalin became a dictator and acted in the same ways as a Tsar would. The Russian Civil War (1918-1920) was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed to the Soviets, under the domination of the Bolshevik party. Soviet forces first assumed power in Petrograd (St. Petersburg) and subsequently gained control throughout Russia. The Civil war caused major economic disruption and consequently further worsened the famine from not only the combined effect of the disruption of civil war but also World War 1 and the Russian Revolution of 1917. War Communism ties in with the famine. The policy was adopted by the Bolsheviks with the aim of keeping towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food, in conditions in which all normal economic mechanisms and relations were being destroyed by the war War communism included the following policies: 1. All industry was nationalized and strict centralized management was introduced. 2. State monopoly on foreign trade was introduced. 3. Discipline for workers was strict, and strikers could be shot. ...read more.

Conclusion

This was a major change within society as it meant that Russia's economic situation was heavily reliant on the working classes and also the middle class factory owners were becoming a dominate figure in restabilising Russia's economic situation. 1941-1953 saw very little change in Russia apart from the death of Stalin and the rise of Khrushchev and also a small economic dip due to WW2. Russia experienced many changes in the period of 1881-1924, the key changes in my opinion, which were most significant, beneficial and had the greatest impact on Russia as a whole were the end to a Tsarist Autocracy and Russia becoming near Communism, the control which Lenin and the Bolsheviks had over Russia and Stalin's 5 year plans and the rapid industrialisation which came with it. The end of a Tsarist autocracy and Russia becoming near communist had a great impact on the power of the government as it gave the people more freedom. Lenin and the Bolsheviks caused many problems socially but economically the introduction of the NEP by Lenin prevented Russia from complete ruin. In my opinion I think Stalin had the greatest impact on Russia with his 5 year plan which changed the country economically and socially with massive rural to urban migration and potentially he saved Russia's status as a world dominate force. ...read more.

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