• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How effectively did Alexander II cope with the problems he faced on his succession?

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐As Alexander ascended the throne in 1855, he inherited a country whose problems were being starkly exposed, through the impending defeat in the Crimean war .Thus Russians illusion of themselves as a superior nation were being shattered, as the realisation of the countries backwardness in, comparison to the West, was being made painfully clear. The problems that induced this backwardness can be placed into four broad divisions, economic stagnation, outmoded military and an inefficient judicial system all of which were underpinned by the rigid repression of education, with harsh censorship methods. When judging how effectively Alexander coped with these problems, the changes that occurred throughout his rein in solving the problems will be assessed. Due to the nature of the period after the war, many of Alexanders coping methods were in fact, and had to be, reforms. This need for reform is demonstrated by Alexander admitting the need to ?reform from above? rather than wait for the reform to be forced ?from below?. Overall, however, it can be concluded that Alexander coped ineffectively with the problems as although he is named the ?reforming tsar? many of his reforms were not successful, due to his duality approach with his wish to retain autocratic rule whilst still attempting to modernise the nation. ...read more.


The rules were, also, loosened along with conscription being compulsory for all above the age of 21, reducing the class prejudice that had littered the army previously. Peasants were also able to rise up the ranks, of the army providing more incentive, this did, however, create tensions within the army as nobility resented the prospect of peasants having the opportunity to be above them. The army size was also reduced, so that the members could become more specialised and professional, this saved government spending as previously 45% of money was spent on the army. The conscripts did, however, had to remain on standby, and could be mobilised in case they were suddenly required. The advances that the army had made were demonstrated through their victory over Turkey in 1877. This victory took longer than expected, although the army was improved and modern weaponry had increased, the weapons were still nowhere near as effective as of modern armies around the world. So when assessing how successful Alexander was when coping with this problem, he was successful to an extent but many of the previous problems still blighted the army. One theory for the lack of technology was as well as economic struggles? the lack of education and tightly controlled censorship, suppressed ...read more.


Alexander came to power, in a time were the slaughting defeat in the Crimea, meant that he had no choice but to deal with the problems his nation faced, as he form of coping through the introduction of reforms. Although he attempted to amend his nations difficulties, if completely perfected this would actually destroy him and his autocratic rule. Alexander, therefore was forced to take a duality approach to the reforms, were his liberalism was slashed after the attempted assignation of him in 1866. This meant that on his death, assassinated by the liberal terrorists, he was leaving a Russia with many of the same problems, although there had been some advances, Alexander was his own worst enemy. As if he reformed, he opened the door to liberalism and eventually the wish for a parliament and out booting of him, yet if he did not reform his nation would be left floundering in the western powers wake as an ever backward nation. This is the reason that he reforms were not effective in dealing with the problems, so did not cope well, as the reforms themselves had two contrasting ambitions and often took too long to implement. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. To What Extent Were the Reforms of Alexander II Intended to Preserve and Strengthen ...

    villages and the Duma in towns, he granted a certain level of autonomy to local government. The Zemstva and Duma had control over various aspects of Russian life in their area, their control spanned from polices on health, land management, education, economic growth, roads and utilities.

  2. To what extent was Hitlers rise to power due to Economic Problems?

    A fanatic for whom 'nothing else mattered in the end' save a perverse desire to massacre the Jews). Alan Bullock, Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (1952) is now regarded as out-of-date. Bullock presented a Hitler little different to that of the Munich Post journalists: 'an entirely unprincipled opportunist' who was prepared to say, and do, anything necessary to get power.

  1. How successful was Alexander II in transforming Russian Society

    Despite the huge impact of Alexander II's reforms, they did not all transform society, especially as he withdrew several in years to come. Emancipation did not stop any discontent from the lower classes, as following the Ukase, there were 647 riots in 4 months.

  2. How successful were the attempts by Alexander II to reform Russia?

    many not receiving jobs and this was to be the start of a series of famines. This was made worse as the state and nobles made increasingly great claims on grain production, leaving the serfs with very little. Additional financial strain was imposed on the serfs as they were made to pay redemption payments during 49 years.

  1. Trotsky - Succession, Revolutionary Success, Civil War Hero, Death, Failure and End

    In fact, it was probably Lenin who benefited most from Trotsky's allegiance, as he had returned from his exile to find much opposition to his grand ideas of a second revolution against the newly established Provisional Government. Lenin had said of the February revolution in his April Theses that: "Ours

  2. Why, and with what success did Alexander II embark on a series of reforms?

    It united the working class and gave them hope for a better quality of life. The purpose of the chartist movement is argued by historians, was it a social, economic or political cause? Firstly we have to address the core of Chartism, the people's charter.

  1. How effectively did Weimar governments deal with the problems faced between 1919-1929?

    By surviving the attempts, the republic effectively took care of the communist uprisings, this led to there being no serious political violence in Germany between 1923- early 1930?s. The politics stabilised between 1924-1928, with the SPD gaining votes while the DNVP & Nazis lost them; in 1928 0nly 2.6% of Germans voted for the Nazis.

  2. Was Alexander II more successful than Alexander III in coping with the problems ...

    This growing discontent coincided with the emergence of an intelligentsia from the middle class. The intelligentsia were starting to become more organised forming early groups such as the Nihilists and then Populists. These groups were beginning to actively show their discontent at the limited reforms Alexander II had introduced would

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work