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How Far At the Death of Mary I, In 1558, Was England a Roman Catholic country.

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Introduction

HOW FAR AT THE DEATH OF MARY I, IN 1558, WAS ENGLAND A ROMAN CATHOLIC COUNTRY? Queen Mary I of England reigned as queen of England for a short five years. Most historians consider her reign to be unfruitful in that she never was able to see her dream of returning England to the Roman Catholic Church fulfilled. She was also never able to bear any children to continue her dream as the monarch of England. In addition to the failure of her domestic policies, her foreign policies met with failure as well. After Edward VI's death and the overthrow of Lady Jane Grey, "the nine day queen", Mary immediately went to work bringing the Roman Catholic faith back to England. She initially did this by repealing the religious proclamations of Edward VI, and replacing them with old English laws enforcing heresy against the Church. In carrying out the last action, Mary earned her nickname, "Bloody Mary," because during her reign, more than 300 persons were burned at the stake for heresy. Among them were prominent Protestant clergymen such as Thomas Cranmer. In her drive to find an heir to the English throne, Mary married Prince Philip II, of Spain. This made her subjects even more apprehensive about her, because Spain was looked upon as an arch enemy of England, chiefly because of religious differences. ...read more.

Middle

She began secret negotiations with the Pope soon after becoming Queen. The Pope appointed the Englishman, Cardinal Reginald Pole, to be his legate in England. Pole was a descendant of Edward IV's brother the Duke of Clarence and a distant cousin of Mary. His mother, the Countess of Salisbury, had been Mary's godmother and governess and had been executed by King Henry VIII in 1541. Reginald had fled from England and began his career in Rome. Pole advised Mary to move quickly in returning England to Rome but Mary argued that this would take time. There were political problems and she suggested that it would be easier to persuade the Parliament and the people to accept papal supremacy if the Pope would agree to leave the confiscated monastic lands in the hands of the present owners. At first Pole did not agree but after a year the Pope agreed. In 1555 Mary was able to return to the Franciscan and Dominican monks the monasteries still in the possession of the crown that had not been given to private individuals. Pole arrived in England in November of 1554. By Christmas Parliament had passed 'An Act for the Renewing of The Three Statues made for the Punishment of Heresies', which reinstated the Act for the Burning of Heretics of 1401. ...read more.

Conclusion

But when the burnings began she sent agents to spy on the refugees and money was not allowed to be sent to them. From abroad the refugees wrote pamphlets to undermine Mary's authority. The most sensational was John Foxe's "First Blast of the Trumpet against the Monstrous Regiment of Women" which was aimed at Mary as well as her Scottish counterparts, Mary of Guise and Mary Queen of Scots. Mary ordered that anyone found in possession of these books would be put to death without trial. Mary began to see that these acts to uproot heresy were failing. Instead of bringing people back into the fold of the Catholic Church the executions were creating resentment and rebellion. Instead of helping the church she was harming it and the knowledge of this caused her much grief. Her only joy now focused on her marriage and the hope of a Catholic heir. In conclusion, the success of Mary's attempts at reverting England to Catholicism by the end of her reign was shown as being unsuccessful. Her reign was far too short to have been able to produce lasting religious effect. Had her reign lasted longer, it is possible to believe her aims in making England wholly Catholic could have been reached. MAR�A-PAULINA SOCARR�S-GARZ�N 12 URSULA HOW FAR AT THE DEATH OF MARY I, IN 1558, WAS ENGLAND A ROMAN CATHOLIC COUNTRY? ...read more.

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