• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How far do the sources suggest consistent aims in Mussolini's foreign policy 1922-1939?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Robert Stables, 12F2 AS History Coursework Part A: How far do the sources suggest consistent aims in Mussolini's foreign policy 1922-1939? In order to decide whether or not Mussolini's aims for his foreign policy were consistent between 1922 and 1939, we must first establish what his aims were. Mussolini wanted to pursue an aggressive foreign policy that would help him achieve dominance at home and overseas. He wanted to expand Italy into an empire, like it had been in the days of the Romans. This meant gaining African colonies, aswell as controlling the Mediterranean and some of the Balkan states. This would lead to his other aims; build national prestige, spread Fascism abroad, and hence gain domestic support for his regime. Source 1 is two assessments from Sir Ronald Graham, the British ambassador to Rome, one source was written in January 1923, and the other in June of the same year. In both of these accounts he gives his opinions of Mussolini's aims within his foreign policy. ...read more.

Middle

This source justifies Graham's belief in souce 1 where he says "striking success in foreign policy is of vital importance to him". It also conforms to Mussolini's aggressive foreign policy, showing his desire to expand his empire, and achieve dominance over African colonies. The only notable change in his policy from Grahams views in 1923, is his preference of an Ally. "Italy's policy can have only one watchword - to march to the ocean. Which ocean? The Indian ocean...or the Atlantic...In either case we will find ourselves confronted with Anglo-French opposition." Mussolini seems to give no regard to British or French opinion. In 1923 Graham stated "he (Mussolini) would prefer to work with Great Britain". Source 5 even tells us of a part of one of Mussolini's speeches in 1934 in which he was very anti-German. "people who were wholly illiterate in the days when Caesar, Virgil and Augustus flourished in Rome." This means that whilst the Romans were flourishing the Germans were barbarians, implying that the German people are inferior to the Italians. ...read more.

Conclusion

He tells of how it was described as "the return of Italy to the eternal grandeur of Rome". It is a good source to understand Mussolini's reasons for invading Abyssinia. He wanted to expand his empire hence spread Fascism abroad and then in turn this would hopefully increase support for his regime and build up national prestige also. These six sources give a wide range of opinions about Mussolini's foreign policy, spread over the period of sixteen years. Generally the sources all conform to Mussolini's desire to pursue an aggressive foreign policy, by means of military strength in invading such places as Abyssinia. They all give the opinion that Mussolini was prepared to take his country to war in order to achieve his aims, yet there is one inconsistency in Mussolini's foreign policy. From 1923 to 1935, Mussolini gives no indication of aggression towards the British or French, and even openly calls the Germans barbarians. Whereas in 1935 he praises the Germans and in 1939, a year before declaring war on them, announces that he is prepared to show aggression towards them in order to break through the Mediterranean and expand into Africa ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. How far had Mussolini achieved his aims in domestic policy by 1939?

    Historians may see his domestic policy as harsh and unjust but it is effective in ceasing absolute power in the Italy's parliament. Another significant piece of evidence to show how far did Mussolini achieved his domestic policy is the fact that Mussolini had intruded into the Italians' daily life considerably.

  2. To What Extent Did Mussolini Achieve his Foreign Policy Aims of making Italy "Great ...

    He aimed to do so through war and conquest. By doing this, he would, in addition, make Italy look great and respected with a nation of loyal, athletic warriors. Mussolini aimed to challenge the French domination of the Mediterranean, and in its place, expand the Italian dominance in places such as Greece and the unredeemed land.

  1. Blitzkreig coursework

    The French had assumed that the Belgian army would have been capable of delaying the German advancement significantly because of the strong fortresses at Liege, Eben-Emael and the natural defenses provided by the Albert Canal, the Meuse and the Ardennes Forest. However in actual fact the Belgians (and the Dutch)

  2. Mussolinis’s Foreign Policy

    Mussolini not only rejected the League's intervention but began to build a military base in the island. The incident was celebrated as a great success for Mussolini however, in reality it was a diplomatic defeat for Mussolini, since he had been forced to leave Corfu by Anglo-French pressure.

  1. "Nazi policy towards the Jews up to 1939 was uncoordinated and erratic."

    The answer was yes. Civil servants welcomed a transition from the excess of the S.A to 'law and order.' Again highlighting the feeling that Nazi policy was becoming uncoordinated and erratic through the excess of the S.A. It is believed NSDAP issued instructions that Jews were to be banned from initially three professions; Legal, Medicine and Teaching.

  2. What were the main principles of British Foreign Policy from 1793-1853 and how far ...

    However in 1812 America went to war with Britain because of their trading embargo with France. Although it was eventually ratified the war was due to trade and its outcome was a free trade treaty. Therefore one can see that trade formed a large part of British Foreign Policy during this period.

  1. How far would you agree that Mussolini's invasion of Abyssinia was his greatest success ...

    As well as his success with regards to the Corfu incident, where he forced the Greek government to back down and pay compensation to Italy for the deaths of 4 Italian workers working on Greek soil, his involvement in the Locarno Treaty, Kellog-Briand Pact and the Stresa Front were undoubtedly much more successful than the invasion of Abyssinia.

  2. To what extent would you agree that Mussolinis invasion of Abyssinia was his greatest ...

    Ultimately Italy gained little from Abyssinia in terms of resources. On the other hand, it could be argued that other instances in Mussolini?s foreign policy were greater failures, such as Corfu. Between 1922 and 1935, Italian foreign policy appeared to be successful whilst Mussolini acted like an international statesman, but Corfu is an exception.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work