• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How far do you agree that Mussolini's foreign policy was a failure from the years 1933-41

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

LYDIA GEORGE How far do you agree that Mussolini?s foreign policy in the years 1933-41 was a complete failure? During the years from 1933-41 Mussolini committed to many different foreign policies. Mussolini?s foreign policy aims for Italy were to build national prestige, increase domestic support for the regime, gain dominance over the Balkans and the Mediterranean and spread fascism abroad all to establish his empire. He had to consider factors whilst formulating his foreign policy plans such as trading, alliances (military back-up/defence), resources within the empire and war to ensure that his regime would be a success. In many ways Mussolini?s foreign policy was a failure and some policies led to the hindrance of making Italy great, although some of the policies, agreed to by Mussolini, did help Italy to strive in the sense of fulfilling the aims. In 1933, Mussolini hoped to build a rival to the League of Nations to repair European affairs. The leaders of Britain, Germany, France and Italy met in Rome and formed a four-power co-operation ? The Four Power Pact ? where Mussolini?s chief motive in suggesting the pact was the wish for closer Franco-Italian relations. ...read more.

Middle

In September 1939, Germany invades Poland and Britain and France declare war on Germany. Mussolini declares his ally has been treacherous with no confrontation, and therefore voided the Pact of Steel. Ultimately the Pact of Steel initially is the end of Mussolini as it forces him to join the war on the side of the Germans and because of this, the Pact of Steel foreign policy is a failure. In 1934, Hitler ordered the Austrian Nazis to create havoc in Austria to gain Anschluss. This turned into an attempt to overthrow the government. Chancellor Dollfuss was assassinated but the attempted coup failed because the Austrian military intervened to back up the government. Italy?s agreement with Austria meant that it would protect Austria from outside aggression. Mussolini honoured the agreement and moved Italian troops to the Austrian border to deter Hitler from invading. This action emphasised the power Mussolini had as he managed to stop and deter Hitler from invading Germany, it was internationally and domestically a great success. Although again in Hitler tries to invade Austria in 1938, by this time relationships had improved to such an extent that Mussolini permitted Hitler's Anschluss with Austria. ...read more.

Conclusion

This initially united Italy with Germany and Japan in complete opposition with Communists as they all had strong fascism ideology. Therefore Italy, through this pact, had established strong foreign affairs to begin to spread fascism globally. 'I want to make Italy great, respected and feared' said Mussolini in 1925. Mussolini's foreign policy included a number of positive and negative factors which all contributed to the rise, and the ultimately to the downfall, of both Mussolini and the Italian empire. It was clear that, Mussolini's foreign policy between 1922 and 1939 was not effective. His dreams of creating a powerful Italian fascist empire had crumbled. He had managed to overstretch Italy's resources and he made desperate alliances to inappropriate foreign powers in order to gain any strength to continue his dream. Instead, he lost control of his foreign policy and contributed to the downfall of Italy. Mussolini seemed to have believed his own propaganda that Italy was in a powerful and successful position and was respected in Europe. Instead the truth was that Italy had become a puppet of Hitler, who was used in order for them to get into power and Italy was left behind Mussolini's foreign policy was driven by ambition rather than common sense. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. To What Extent Did Mussolini Achieve his Foreign Policy Aims of making Italy "Great ...

    the feeling that Italy suffered a "mutilated victory" after the First World War. Italy didn't get the Dalmatian Islands that were promised. Consequently a nationalist rising took place in 1919, headed by D'Annunzio, the very popular poet. This rising proved to Mussolini that aggression and force was able to gain land.

  2. Evaluate the Nazis economic policies from 1933 - 1939. To what extent were the ...

    Therefore he argued, "before 1936 plans for the speedy creation of a large offensive army did not exist".14 Undoubtedly, it is true that there was already a gradual increase in military expenditure between 1933 and 1936. However, from the above data, one cannot make a crude conclusion that Hitler started

  1. "The most important aim of foreign policy 1933-1936 was to overthrow the terms of ...

    part of the Reich which was a key point in nazi policy when discussing the implications set up by the party with regards to the Aryan race as every body else who was not of German blood was considered less better than them and this came to be known as cultural 'ethnic cleansing' as Hitler liked to call it.

  2. 'PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS OUTWEIGHED IDEOLOGY IN FOREIGN POLICY' IN RELATION TO GERMANY IN THE YEARS ...

    Also this pact allowed him to buy time as he deceived his opponents. Hitler here shows himself being a master of seized opportunities. Historian Kershaw believed Hitler had a 'gambler's instinct' and he would 'take the initiative'. Bullock believed Hitler had a 'consistency of aim joined with opportunism method'.

  1. Hitlers Germany

    Others are solid mixtures of concrete and glass or cinderblock-functional, durable, and unimaginative. The cities are hybrid. The Hochh�user-the semi-skyscrapers-are likely to stand in no sensible relationship to the architecture around them. Where there were so many wide fields of blasted stone, new buildings sprouted one at a time, or

  2. Why did Hindenburg appoint Hitler as Chancellor in 1933?

    They tried to prove that voting Nazi would be the best thing to do for the country unlike the Weimar democratic government that was in place at the time (the Nazis could gang against the Weimar republic to gain mass support).

  1. 'In the years 1933-37, German foreign policy was essentially nationalist rather than specifically Nazi'. ...

    To achieve further living space, Hitler would need an augmented military, aiming to achieve this through overthrowing the Versailles Treaty and reintroducing conscription, culminating in his announcement of a Luftwaffe in March 1935. It was not until these nationalist aims had been completed that that he could pursue his Nazi

  2. How significant was foreign influence in shaping Italian political and social development in the ...

    Alternatively, the Catholic Church had powerful significance on Italian society and politics. Naturally anti-secular and anti-republic as this threatened the Pope's power both spiritually and physically within the Papal States; the Church had a strong grip on the multitude of Catholics in Italy.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work