• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How far had equality for black Americans been achieved by 1968?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Jesse Owusu History How far had equality for black Americans been achieved by 1968? Equality for black Americans hadn?t been achieved by 1968. Although, the foundation for change had been set up most noticeably in de jure segregation. The various civil rights acts now had given black Americans equality but strictly only within the law. It would take many more years to change the defacto segregation, which still left African Americans as 2nd class citizens. This is because it?s very hard to change people?s thoughts and opinions, opposed the changing the law, which can be done relatively easily. Before 1968 things were not equal at all there was a significant gap between white and black Americans as 57% of African American housing was judged to be unacceptable, African American life expectancy was 7 years less than whites, African American infant mortality was twice as great as whites, African Americans found it all but impossible to get mortgages from mortgage lenders, Property values would dropped a great deal if an African American family moved into a neighbourhood that was not a ghetto. Although progress was made in most areas of American society like: transport, desegregation, employment, public places, voting rights and public opinion. Nevertheless one area that made little to no progress or had no equality by 1968 was housing. ...read more.

Middle

The Greensboro sit-in challenged this type of inequality by then end of 1963 sit-ins had occurred in 200 cities as direct result 161 had desegregated but some places in the south were set on keeping segregation. Until the civil rights act of 1964 which forced a further 53 cities to desegregate consequently a total of 214 southern cities had desegregated by the end of 1965.They were to have the same rights to equal facilities that white Americans had although, the act did not solve all the problems. There was as expected a negative backlash from pro segregationist some shops/dinners in the south would rather close down than desegregate. Another significant aspect of inequality that was challenged and made more equal by 1968 was voting rights in the start of the 1960?s under Eisenhower?s administration voting rights did not improve for black people to a great extent. Even after his civil rights acts of 1957 and 1960 that focused on stopping the disfranchising of black voters by the with the punishment of a $1000 fine of 6 months in jail they were largely ineffective, only 800,000 black were registered to vote in the south out of 20,000,000 black citizens. However, the voting rights act of 1965 was more effective in increasing voter registration. Between 1965 and 1966 a further 230,00 black people registered to vote across the South. ...read more.

Conclusion

Finally, the census showed that 25 per cent of Americas black population lived in inner city areas in the USA ten largest cities these people were living in almost exclusively black areas due to the phenomenon of ?white flight?. Black campaigners put pressure on American politicians to try and solve these problems. By 1967 22 sates and eight cities had some form of fair housing laws. New York state and Massachusetts had comprehensive enforcement agencies dedicated to challenging discrimination in the housing market however the majority of these fair housing were largely symbolic. The 1968 fair housing act prohibited discrimination in 80 per cent of Americas housing market. However, congress had toned down the act and refused to set up an enforcement agency. Additionally, the maximum fine for racial discrimination in the housing market was a small sum of $1000. Consequently the act was ineffective deterrent to racism in the housing market. This was not equality in the housing market it did improve but not to an acceptable amount. In conclusion the civil rights movement transformed America by 1968 there had been a legal revolution segregation where it still remained was no longer backed by the law the federal government also had new powers to challenge racial injustices. However de facto change was not so comprehensive. Undoubtedly, the USA was a fairer and more equal that it had ever been but there was still a long way to go before all Americans could be considered equal. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level History of the USA, 1840-1968 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level History of the USA, 1840-1968 essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Why was Progress for Racial Equality so slow in the years 1945-1955?

    4 star(s)

    the cause but so did its lack of unity on the whole. There were several prominent civil rights groups active during this period aiding the cause for racial equality but they all differ on issues of method and calmative leadership on the issue of racial equality at a national level wasn't there.

  2. Peer reviewed

    To what extent were Malcolm X and the subsequent Black Power Movement the 'Evil ...

    4 star(s)

    and Malcolm and America p.268 - Cone, 1991 27 Born 1800, Nat Turner was an American slave who led a revolt in Southampton County, Virginia in August 1831. He was executed in 1831 due to his participation in the revolt. The revolt led to the death of 60 white Americans.

  1. Peer reviewed

    Were the 1960s and 1970s a turning point for the equality of Native Americans?

    4 star(s)

    land own, Yet they received the worst parts of the land and ended giving up. Now with no nourished land and no buffalo to hunt, they Indians were heading for serious decline and no equality had been managed to be gained from 1865-1890.

  2. Discuss the influences on Malcolm X and how they helped form his ideology in ...

    witnessed the devastation caused to the African Nations, and the exploitation of the natives and the mineral wealth. Within less than a year Malcolm had changed his methodology and was willing to work with effective civil rights leaders. Evanzz believes Malcolm and Martin Luther King were gradually planning on working together.

  1. How far did the position of black Americans improve during the years 1945-1955?

    It caused a revival in the activity of the KKK and resulted in the Emmett Till case which followed a year later. He was a 14 year old black boy who was lynched in the backlash and the two white men who murdered him were found not guilty by an all white jury.

  2. Thomas Jefferson(TM)s Views about Black Inferiority

    (Dershowitz 136) Therefore, coming up with a reason for why the slave trade should be ended coming from Jefferson's standpoint does make sense. Jefferson also served on a committee to revise the statues of the state of Virginia. There was a bill that was thought up of relating to the liberation of slaves in the conference.

  1. The Eisenhower years saw significant improvement for the African Americans

    endorse Brown he did feel the need to get involved which in itself means that African Americans were being recognised by the government. A further example of where segregation was ended during Eisenhower's presidency was after the Montgomery bus boycotts.

  2. Civil Rights Revision Cards 1945-68

    1. Courage ? abuse, physical attacks NAACP 1. Encouraged students ? asked them to be ?guinea pigs? to test Little Rock?s compliance with BROWN. EISENHOWER 1. Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas (making stand to get support of whites for re-election) sent in Arknansa National Guard to surround school and keep black students out.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work