• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How far was foreign policy the main cause of conflict between Crown and Parliament between 1618 and 1629?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How far was foreign policy the main cause of conflict between Crown and Parliament between 1618 and 1629? The outbreak of the 30 years war in 1618 intensified the continuing conflicts between Crown and Parliament from 1618-29. The underlying troubles of finance and a fear of popery and arbitury government became greater during this period and led to a breakdown in relations between Crown and Parliament by 1629. These underlying issues formed a structural weakness within the kingdom?s ship of state which, added to by the contributory conflicts caused by Buckingham, was unable to cope when all were brought into greater significance by the outbreak of war and the pressure of foreign policy. The war in Europe, while creating conflicts of wider and older issues, forced clashes between Crown and Parliament over foreign policy. James wished to act as a mediator, centring policies on the creation of peace. Through dynastic marriages, James sought to show a commitment to moderation and restore Frederick V?s Palatinate lands using diplomacy. Parliament on the other hand wanted a declaration of war and to support Protestantism within Europe. Unsatisfied with James? handling of foreign policy, the commons issued the Commons protestation in December 1621 demanding the abandonment of the Spanish match, a protestant marriage and the use of force to save the Palatinate. This brought forward issues of prerogative and led to James? angered dismissal of parliament. ...read more.

Middle

The debt was nearing £1 million and James struggled to extract subsidies from Parliament who were insisting on but unwilling to fund intervention in the Palatinate. James’ extravagance and reliance on favourites had escalated and he was seen by parliament as ‘leaky cistern’ when it came to the management of funds. When James called Parliament in 1621 he was consequently granted only two subsidies, about £160,000, far short of what was necessary. Parliament used the granting of supply as opportunities to raise domestic grievances such as monopolies. On his succession, James had announced his attention to grant no more monopolies but by 1621 had granted over 100 as a way of aiding his struggling financial position. Monopolies were a major grievance and a total of 16 weeks were spent in discussion. An act on monopolies passed in 1624 aimed to deal with this conflict. Charles’ 1st parliament began with discontent over the loss of subsidies due to the failure of the Mansfield expedition. Granted only two subsidies, about £140,000, Charles broke with precedent and demanded more. He was also angered by the granting of tonnage and poundage for only one year and Parliament’s reluctance to finance a war which they supported. Further conflicts were caused by ship money and the king’s use of forced loans, first called in 1625 and again in the next few years. An amount equivalent to 5 subsidies was extracted but at a heavy political cost. ...read more.

Conclusion

Buckingham held many key positions of power; his rise to Duke of Buckingham in 1623 gave him the highest aristocratic rank outside of the royal family. Buckingham was seen to manipulate the king, appointing his own men to positions of responsibility and taking an active part in policy and decision making. His control of patronage angered many hoping many to gain favour with the king and was thus the source of much factional in-fighting within the court. As Lord Admiral, Buckingham became a very contentious figure as he was blamed for the series of failed expeditions of Cadiz and La Rochelle. In 1626, Parliament attempted to impeach Buckingham on the grounds of high treason. With it likely that parliament would win, Charles dismissed parliament to prevent it. The scenes of public rejoicing at Buckingham?s assassination in August 1628 demonstrated the immense hatred nearly all but the king felt towards him. Instead of using Buckingham?s death as an opportunity to renew relations with parliament, Charles blamed them for his death. Foreign policy heightened the causes of conflict between crown and parliament already existing when war broke out in 1618. The pressures of the conflict brought into question England?s commitment to protecting Protestantism across Europe and, for James, his commitment to peace. Issues of prerogative arose along with the added burden war placed on an already heavily indebted and inefficient financial system. Buckingham became an object of hatred arising from the anger and discontent already existing between crown and parliament from 1618 to the breakdown of relations in 1629. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level British History: Monarchy & Politics section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level British History: Monarchy & Politics essays

  1. How far were James I's problems inherited, how far of his own making?

    at the time of her death, and that another �100,000 of the money owed had been collected in the late 1590s as forced loans which nobody realistically expected the crown to repay, it could be argued that Elizabeth died relatively solvent10.

  2. Why did Charles I decide to dissolve parliament in 1629?

    The Arminian High Church promoted the divine right of the King, supported the forced loan and used Gods messenger as a defensive device. The King in this instance went with what he wanted, but what was not necessarily best for the country.

  1. Why Did Charles Dissolve Parliament in 1629?

    Charles had not been groomed in his youth to be the King because he had an elder brother, named Henry. He had a natural speech impediment and had a short attention span. When Henry died, his life was transformed. He was suddenly thrown into the limelight and did not know how to cope.

  2. How far were James I's financial problems in England up to 1618 Of his ...

    The 'Book of Bounty' was a measure brought in by the Lord treasurer Salisbury in 1608 as an attempt to cut down James's willingness to give away crown lands and possessions. The book prohibited the giving away of land and major possessions of the crown, and was also meant to lower the courtiers expectations of gifts.

  1. Henry II (1154 - 1189) is generally seen as the main catalyst in the ...

    Mayr-Harting and R.I. Moore ed..1985) pp.219-232 17. Henry II: British Monarchs pages 1-3 http://www.britanna.com/histry/monarchs/mon26.html [Visited 6/1/2003] 18. History of Law Constitutions of Clarendon 1166, 'The Avalon Project at the Yale Law School: Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy', http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/Avalon/Avalon.htm indicates texts of classics such as Blackstone's Commentaries.

  2. Why by 1629 had Charles I decided to rule without Parliament?

    In return for this they would grant him five subsidies. Charles was not happy but because of his Divine Right signed the document regardless; he saw it as an earthly matter and therefore didn't have to obey it. Parliament was adjourned on the 26th of June.

  1. Millicent Fawcett's significance

    The women working in the munitions factories jeopardised their health and their fertility, 950,000 women were employed in munitions factories by Armistice Day. It could no longer be declared that women had not earned the right to vote, although women did not actively engage in battle, women were the ones

  2. Arabi israli conflict

    But this created the problem of Palestinian Refugees. Many wars broke out due to this conflict over land. Since Israel's existence it fought in many wars to keep the land, the first began in 1948 this was called the invasion of Israel. This occurred because Arab states felt Israel had no right to exist, but Israel refused to hand back the land which they had occupied in fighting.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work