• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How Had The Lives Of Women, Landlords, Businessmen And Peasants Improved During The First Stage Of Communist Control In China 1949 - aprox. 1962?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

History Coursework 2001 : Tom AbouNader : How Had The Lives Of Women, Landlords, Businessmen And Peasants Improved During The First Stage Of Communist Control In China 1949 - aprox. 1962? The 29 of September 1949 was the year in which the Communists took control over the soon to be "Peoples Republic Of China." What faced them was a country ravaged by war from overseas invasion and from civil unrest. These years of war had taken their toll on the country's infrastructure, terrain and output. Inflation was huge, and at the end of 1948 it was around 2,870,00% due to the effects of a continued state of civil war, the Wall Street crash, the damage done by the invading Japanese, the fleeing Chiang Kai Shek and also from Russian revolutionaries who stole much important machinery. Because of this rapid inflation many people lost all savings and also in some cases their homes and jobs. Unemployment was huge, and starvation was setting in because of the damage to farmland and casualties to peasants. Despite this; the population was increasing by around 15 million per annum, and this was in addition to the already present 540 million Chinese. China had reached a point where it had nearly rendered itself extinct as a working country. ...read more.

Middle

This was something like a trial by accusation for the landlords and in some cases also for KMT officials. In these meetings the indicted were usually humiliated, made to confess to crimes and/or forced to take a lowly place in the community. They were stripped of their status, privileges, political rights and of all their previously owned land(which was later collectively split and divided among the peasants.) In some cases the accused was sentenced to death and shot. Meetings would sometimes get out of hand and become violent towards the particular person on "Trial". This sometimes led to severe beatings and frequently death. After only one year of communist control; deaths of around 1million landlords, KMT officials and members were estimated. Businessmen had also been badly affected by the ongoing civil war and the eventual communist take-over. Much of the country's industry had been destroyed through war, invasion and Russian "liberation". Many remaining businesses were simply taken over by the government; owners were not allowed to draw any profit, except in sparse cases where profit was extremely limited. Mao released his first "Five Year Plan" where he decreed businesses were to optimise and increase output on all industrial fronts; putting increasing pressure on businessmen's shoulders to perform to the maximum. ...read more.

Conclusion

Mao had failed to find the balance between the rate of agricultural and industrial advancement, the consequence of this was the death of 10-25 million people, most of which were the peasants. The peasants were the hands on the end of Mao's arms doing his binding at whatever cost, and at the end of it all, what had they gained? They themselves were still peasants, were still tied to manual labour and still had not really gained any social height. But their devotion to Mao blinded them from this in many cases, and they continued to do his biding. All in all the peasants, women, landlords and businessmen all lost and gained from the communists, although admittedly in many cases what they gained was in fact exactly what they lost. What Mao brought was in some ways a strong dictatorship hidden behind a veil of socialism. Mao utilised the peasants in ways they could not discern or perceive and manipulated their actions to his wishes. Consequently he brain-washed a nation into devout Mao obsessives and used them as tools and fertiliser in his metaphorically blooming garden. Nonetheless he had acclaimed popularity and was well on his way to deification. In short Mao cheated all of these groups out of something, but the way in which he did this was just subtle enough not to cause uproar in his newly united country. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Why did the Communists come to power in China in 1949?

    It was only after Chiang was kidnapped by a Manchurian warlord that he realised going to war with the Japanese was the only way for his total control of China. The war helped the CCP come to power in 1949 as they were strengthened by yet another victory, and one

  2. How did Mao first control the peasants, then the countryside and finally China?

    They always had to go hungry because the Kuomintang took their food as taxes, but now they could farm their own food without giving it to the landlords of the Kuomintang. The peasants had always been landless but now they had their own piece of land to farm.

  1. Why did Mao Zedong introduce a second five year plan in 1958 and to ...

    The government recognised that farms that were too small could not be farmed efficiently, and therefore could not produce the amount of food needed for the five year plan. Also they were afraid that the land owning peasants would become a new class in society, concerned with only making profits for themselves thereby going against the communist belief.

  2. Did Mao Create A Cruel Dictatorship ?

    Farming wasn't any better, as the commune system meant rewards were not given for hard work. So many didn't work. And in the 1960's there was 2 years of drought. It is estimated that between 1958 and 1962 in excess of 30 000 000 people died.

  1. American History.

    w/the cherry tree myth, etc.; Gilbert Stuart and Charles Willson Peale painted portraits of good republican citizens; John Trumbull painted history battle scenes; Thomas Jefferson set the standard for American architecture by suggesting imitation Roman buildings w/simplicity of line, harmonious proportions and a feeling of grandeur.

  2. Why did the Communist party successfully gain control of China?

    Mao and his followers settled in Kiangsi and named it "Kiangsi Soviet," it was a mountainous area full of peasants. Mao's decision to use the peasants contradicted the Communist tradition of industrial workers. He treated the peasants very well by giving them land of landowners and they were provided education.

  1. The Great Leap Forward - China between 1958 and 1962.

    Xiaoping worsened the situation by creating the Department of Economic Growth ((based upon the Soviet Gosplan model) which centralised directives and set even higher targets. The direct result was the over-production of poor quality goods, a virtual collapse of heavy industry through mismanagement, a malaise and a demoralisation and exhaustion of the peasant population.

  2. To what extent do the sources agree that Russian government policy on agriculture consistently ...

    This does suggest that this reform did bring some success, but the overall picture was that many peasants preferred social security, and this lead to the failure of the policy. Source 3 is Stalin's view of his own collective farm policy, so must be treated as a very objective piece of evidence.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work