• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How important was the Bolshevik threat to Tsardom in the reign of Nicholas II

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐How important was the Bolshevik threat to Tsardom in the reign of Nicholas II? In order to form an opinion of how important the Bolshevik threat was, we need to clearly understand the many factors that affected the strength of Tsar Nicholas II and his autocratic reign. To avoid being subjective, we must scrutinize primary and secondary sources, evaluate each source based on its reliability and credibility and then apply the correct information to articulate an accurate conclusion. To begin to execute an objective overview that incorporates events, ideas and people that may have influenced Tsarist Russia at the turn of the 20th Century, we need to analyze certain points in history prior and after Nicholas II arrival at Russia?s seat of power. The embarrassing defeat in the Crimean War in 1856 highlighted serious issues in Russia?s industrial, financial and communications structures and therefore became the catalyst for Alexander II (Nicholas II Grandfather) to implement social reforms. The Emancipation of the Serfs in 1861 encouraged a double negative effect on the long term continuation of Tsardom, releasing peasants from slavery and creating a stronger upper lower class in the form of ?Kulaks?. These social reforms also alienated much of the nobility or bourgeoisie that had profited from serfdom, creating resentment at both ends of the social spectrum. ...read more.

Middle

Dating from the 1870?s, Populism was a revolutionary movement that drew its members from the middle and upper classes and as a result they regarded it their duty to educate the peasantry. However, the Populist Movement (Narodniki) lacked any tangible success due to peasant hostility, ?the peasants? ignorance, superstition, prejudice and deep-rooted loyalty to the Tsar ensured that by 1874, 1600 populists had been arrested? (Waller, S. 2009). The Social Revolutionaries were a descendant of the Populist Movement and as so their views were similar. They adapted far more than their predecessors and had some minor success, particularly with terrorist acts by blowing up various Ministers between 1901 and 1905. This adept means of propaganda, ?made the Social Revolutionaries seem like a party of action? (Murphy, D. & Morris, T. 2008), but this was little more than superficial bravado. Inspired by the teachings of Karl Marx, the Social Democrats wanted to create a more socially balanced society based on Marx?s Communist Theory. The Social Democratic leader George Plekhanov formed the party in 1898, but many members became disillusioned with his theoretical leadership style and wanted a more proactive approach. The foremost advocate of this approach was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, also known as Lenin, ?Lenin envisaged a disciplined and dedicated group of professional revolutionaries which would act as the ?vanguard of the proletariat? (Murphy, D. ...read more.

Conclusion

Pyotr Stolypin became synonymous with the ?Stolypin necktie? as his fields court martial, resulted in many hangings. With the advent of the First World War, the Tsar?s already uncertain future became doomed, due to the length of the war, the millions of casualties that Russia suffered and soaring inflation. The February Revolution of 1917 became the climax of the crisis. Tsardom collapsed from within, none of the generals or politicians fought to save the regime and there was no direct effect from outside revolutionary pressure. To summarise, when Lenin returned to Russia in April 1917, Nicholas had already abdicated, after his position had become untenable and on the advice of high command generals. Lenin persuaded the masses with his ?April Theses? that built up Bolshevik membership and subsequently persuaded the Bolshevik Central Committee to take action in October 1917. The Bolsheviks were dealt a stroke of luck when Alexander Kerensky was appointed Prime Minister, as he was inept and unqualified for such a role at a pivotal time. The threat of the Bolsheviks during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II was extremely minimal. Although they were the most well prepared to seize power, the Bolsheviks were no doubt helped by a string of important events culminating in the First World War. Tsardom self imploded, greatly assisted than any other key point, by the weak and inept Tsar Nicholas II. Words count 1347. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Describe the Russia that Tsar Nicholas II inherited

    This resulted in Russia ostensibly inhabiting the weakest industry in relation to its enemies who they were incapable of matching the power of. From 1850 to 1875, railways in Russia grew from 1,049km to 19,029km. Despite this appearing to be an increase in progress, Russia was again nevertheless lacking in

  2. Lenin and the Bolshevik revolution.

    it painfully obvious that the war could not be won by military means. By the time of the October Revolution, even someone as closely linked to the Provisional Government as Alexander Verkhovsky, the minister of war, could conclude that the situation was hopeless, and that the only way of keeping

  1. Describe the Russia that Tsar Nicholas II inherited

    He strengthened the secret police and introduced new methods of cracking down on the revolutionaries and numbers of arrests increased for those who criticised the government. The sudden mix of reforms and anti-reforms resulted in an unstable political system that Alexander III controlled by tyrannical measures such as cracking down

  2. How Serious Was The Threat Posed To Henry VII By Pretenders To The Throne

    Warbeck was also welcomed by many other monarchs and his reputuation was building. In 1493 he was recognised as Richard Duke of York, by Maximilian I. On 3 July 1495, Perkin attempted to land in England, his forces were not big enough and therefore he was forced to retreat to Ireland.

  1. How well does Alexander II deserve his reputation as The Tsar Liberator(TM)?

    Delving further into the question of Alexander's worthiness to carry the title 'Tsar Liberator'; an examination of the biggest and boldest reform must be undertook, emancipation. Emancipation, announced in 1861 was the act of liberation for the seriously suffering serfs of Russia; serfs who were bought and sold, compelled to labour without restriction and punished at theirs masters choice.

  2. The Bolshevik Consolidation of power 1917-21.

    The Russian Civil War, 1918-20. * The dissolution of the constituent assembly and the subsequent banning of all other political parties made it obvious that the Bolsheviks did not want to share power with anyone else. This situation made civil war inevitable.

  1. The Bolshevik Consolidation of Power 1918-21.

    the constituent Assembly, which has refused to recognise the power of the people, is dissolved. The Soviet Revolutionary Republic will triumph no matter what the cost. Many historians disagree as to whether or not Lenin was a violent revolutionary; many of his sympathisers have often argued that the oppressive character

  2. How important was the Bolshevik threat to Tsardom during the reign of Nicholas II?

    There is little doubt that Lenin himself was not fully trusted when compared to the leadership of the Social Revolutionaries. Lenin also knew that if the Bolsheviks were to have credibility, they had to appeal to the working class in Russia. That meant not making promises that couldn?t be kept.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work