• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How significant was the presence of foreign powers as an influence on the nature and growth of Arab nationalism in the years 1900-2001

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Name: Nicholas Kalakoutis History Coursework Part B How significant was the presence of foreign powers as an influence on the nature and growth of Arab nationalism in the years 1900-2001 Throughout the century it is evident that the presence of foreign powers has had a substantial influence on the nature and growth of Arab nationalism which has suffered many peaks and troughs over the years. The fluctuations of Arab nationalism have come as a by product of what is a combination of foreign country?s power hungry self interest and demand for greater natural resources such as oil and greater land. What was once a strong anti-ottoman feeling in the early 1900?s began to develop largely into anti west sentiments which were largely geared towards anti imperialism once the mandate system was set up during the 1920?s. Moreover, after conflict between borders and a continuing anti Zionist affection shown during the Arab Israeli conflict, Arab nationalism began to rise through the 1950?s and peaked after the Suez crisis, and a largely anti imperialist action of nationalising the Canal in 1956. Over the century the Arab Israeli conflict has been more of an integral influence on Arab nationalism than any other. ...read more.


Consequently, tensions rose and Arab nationalism became anti imperialist and anti west due to the burden they had placed on the Arab nations. The creation of independent states was however an ??important issue in the decolonization process,?? [12] which would have affect in the long term removal of European power in the Middle East. However, the border disputes also took place amongst the Arabs themselves and great distrust began to emerge, as was evident when Iraq invaded Kuwait after a border dispute over oil in 1980. The Kuwaiti Government had hoped to force Mr. Hussein to the bargaining table, and negotiate a border truce and a non-aggression pact. Instead, Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait driving its ruling family into exile. Henry M. Schuler, states that from the Iraqi viewpoint, the Kuwait Government was ''acting aggressively - it was economic warfare.''[13] Moreover it can be argued that if not for leaders such as that of Kuwait and Hussein himself, these disputes may never have occurred. Further influence on Arab nationalism has been the ?Superpower? statuses of USSR and the U.S.A. In response to the U.S.A?s refusal to fund Nasser?s plan to build the Aswan High Dam, he nationalised the Suez Canal in 1956[14]. ...read more.


The increasing influence of the USSR due to frequent arms deals cemented their place in the Arab world however the U.S.A did not share this same luxury as it leaned towards Israel. Eventually peace settlements were made in the Middle East as in 1969 where Israel accepted the Resolution 242.[21] Word Count: ________________ [1] Teach MidEast www.teachmideast.org [2] Arab Nationalism and Israel ? Walter Zander [3] Teach MidEast www.teachmideast.org [4] Teach MidEast www.teachmideast.org [5] Nasser and the Six Day War 5th June 1967- Moshe Gat [6] Arab nationalism: Mistaken Identity Martin Kramer [7] Palestine National Charter of 1964 [8] Teach MidEast www.teachmideast.org [9] Dr Nigel Ashton, review of Western Imperialism in the Middle East, 1914?1958 [10] Civilization and the Mandate System under the League of Nations as Origin of Trusteeship - Nele Matz [11] people.virginia.edu/~jrw3k/middle_east_timeline/middle_east_timeline.htm [12] Civilization and the Mandate System under the League of Nations as Origin of Trusteeship - Nele Matz [13] Thomas C. Hayes, 1990 [14] Teach MidEast www.teachmideast.org [15] Arab nationalism: Mistaken Identity Martin Kramer [16] Jankowski, James. Nasser's Egypt, Arab Nationalism, and the United Arab Republic [17] Arab nationalism and Soviet-American relations ? Fayez Sayegh [18] www.labour-history.org.uk- Assess the impact of the Suez Crisis on Cold War politics [19] Arab nationalism: Mistaken Identity Martin Kramer [20] Arab nationalism: Mistaken Identity Martin Kramer [21] Teach MidEast www.teachmideast.org ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Why was the Six-day War of 1967 a Significant Turning Point in the History ...

    This led to enormous outrage throughout the world. This led to the U.N. demanding a cease fire, British and French troops left disgraced. This led to the collapse of the British government, leaving the Prime Minister, Anthony Eden, with no other option than to resign. The Israelis were similarly pressured by the U.N.

  2. Why did tension increase in Europe between 1900 and 1914?

    * The Germans began to use reinforced concrete in 1915 to protect machine-gun posts. German pill-boxes were prefabricated and the parts were fitted together on the battle field. The British did not build pill-boxes, because the commanders regarded it as a defensive measure and the British army was supposed to be on the offensive.

  1. The Foreign Policy of the Lone Superpower

    terms as "public diplomacy"9 In this online document, Roberts provides a detailed explanation of how the United States government successfully handled their diplomatic duties, outside of the embassies and how this fully evolved in what is now called public diplomacy.

  2. Superpower Relations 1945-90

    * Nuclear deterrence could not work in practice: the enemy would only fear a 'massive retaliation' if the destruction of all its nuclear weapons was certain: after a decade of the arms race, there were too many for this to be possible. * Kennedy wanted to scale-down the arms race.

  1. Europe and the Suez Crisis 1956 - To what extent was the military action ...

    According to the American journalist Donald Neff the Suez Crisis was a "hinge point in history" as it discredited France and Britain as participators in the Cold War: it strained the Anglo-American alliance, intensified Egyptian nationalism and increased Soviet influences in the region.

  2. Many peoples have contributed to the development of the United States of America, a ...

    all barriers to trade; an end to secret diplomacy; general disarmament; self-government for the submerged nationalities in the German and Austro- Hungarian empires; and a league of nations. The addition of more than a million American troops to the Allied armies turned the balance against the Germans in 1918, and an armistice on November 11 ended the war.

  1. In the past century American foreign policy has evolved with the world. Changes ...

    In a final attempt for a peaceful solution, McKinley sent a list of demands to Spain. Within the demands it included compensation for the Maine, an end to the concentration camps, Cuban independence and a truce. Though Spain accepted most of the demands and settled to negotiate about Cuban independence, McKinley could not withstand the mounting cries for war.

  2. History of the United States

    While U.S. armies invaded the heartland of Mexico to gain victory, other forces sliced off the northern half of that country--the provinces of New Mexico and Alta California. In the Treaty of GUADALUPE HIDALGO (1848), $15 million was paid for the Mexican cession of those provinces, more than 3 million sq km (roughly 1 million sq m).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work