• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How substantial were the differences between the North and South on the eve of the Civil War?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Clare Ford How substantial were the differences between the North and South on the eve of the Civil War? The differences between the Northern and Southern halves of the United States were substantial on the eve of the Civil War. Both sides detested the other for reasons originating from as far back as the 1840. Sectional tensions had grown, with both Northern and Southern States provoking each other into conflict over their differences. Economic, social, political and cultural contrasts led to the unchangeable disintegration of relations between the states and so their union in the years following the Fort Sumter fiasco of 1860. But these differences had been there for much longer before they caused such problems. Northerners demanded high tariffs on imports to protect their goods from cheap foreign competition. The South, however, wanted just the opposite: low tariffs on the many goods it imported. The persistent conflict over the tariff was crucial because at the time the federal government had few other sources of revenue. Neither personal nor corporate income taxes existed. Thus the tariffs funded the turnpikes, railroads, and canals that were so important to Northern industrialization and Western expansion. The South preferred to do without these improvements in return for lower tariffs. ...read more.

Middle

The South's response to this was embodied by the 1832 South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification, which accused the North of victimising the culture and Southern states, and of arbitrarily imposing prohibitive taxes on cotton and Southern goods. Later, the South particularly John Calhoun, in his objections to Henry Clay's 1850 Compromise which was to placate sectional antagonises accused their northern neighbours of a long list of offences. The South claimed that it was the victim of restrictive tariffs on Southern products, the implementation of the apparently abolitionist Personal Liberty Laws, and that Northern aggression had been manifested in the Wilmot Proviso which was favoured by free soilers and the Republican Party. The Missouri Compromise which allowed Missouri the 24th state to become a slave state was, in Calhoun's view offensive and repulsive to the decent and civilised inhabitants of the South. The North was enraged by Calhoun's protest in the face of what had appeared to be a successful compromise. They believed that Clay a champion of Southern rights had handled the situation deftly and without overdue bias, although there were obviously clauses that they ardently disagreed with. Sectional tension in America graduated from focusing on slavery and began to concentrate on the notion of Slave Power. ...read more.

Conclusion

By 1860, the differences between the North and South had become so great that Northerners and Southerners felt as if they belonged to two different countries. For two halves of a union to posses such different qualities and ways of life it was almost impossible to avoid civil war. But slavery in the South antagonised the North for example with the Fugitive Slave Act and the North provoked the South with the Abolitionists. With more accommodating compromises and more astute president's war may have been avoided. However the Union could not exist for much longer the way it was with such division. It was unlikely the South would give up its profitable way of life but also as impossible, that the North would lay down its morals i.e. slavery and economic views. Southerners had no desire to abandon a system on which their entire economy depended. Up to 1860, only a few extremists in the South wanted to create a separate Southern country. Moderates of both North and South hoped that a compromise could be reached over their differences about slavery and taxes. But instead the fight over slavery contributed extensively to starting the civil war. The war is sometimes called "the war of Southern Independence" showing the union was divided because the South wanted to break away. Civil War became inescapable and a necessary to resolve the North and South's issues once and for all. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Why did the South lose the American Civil War?

    Davis also failed to appoint the right person to the right job much of the time, including some bad appointments of generals. He was not a good communicator or speech writer, and was seen to fail to provide inspiration for his people.

  2. In what ways was the Pacific war a racist conflict?

    But of course, throughout the whole Japanese propaganda mill, whenever they tried to show their sense of racial acceptance in their positive propaganda, they had to discreetly not mention that they were allied with the Nazi's, who were attempting to systematically wipe out the Jews.

  1. Many peoples have contributed to the development of the United States of America, a ...

    position that was not abandoned but confirmed in the cold-war years of the late 1940s and the 1950s. Total War: 1941-45 In September 1940, Congress established the first peacetime draft in American history, and 6 months later it authorized Roosevelt to transfer munitions to Great Britain, now standing practically alone against Hitler, by a procedure called LEND- LEASE.

  2. The Korean war and the conflict between North and South.

    Also, industries became nationalized. By the end of 1946 the Soviet Union had ended preparations of it's "sovietization" of North Korea.8 North Korea then needed to hold general elections to consolidate Il-Sung's position in North Korea.

  1. Why did the South lose the Civil War?

    Finally, and perhaps most importantly, military historians reckon that attacking in this period required thrice the manpower that defending did, virtually wiping out the North's demographic advantages. It would seem, therefore, that although the North's superior resources undoubtedly helped, this alone does not fully account for the Southern defeat.

  2. The American Civil War was not caused by real and deep rooted divisions between ...

    This is significant because with this type of power available to them, the articles could be manipulated to fit the Southern extremist ideas and in this way control the South who at this point would trust what they were told from their politicians and newspaper, the situation was like a

  1. History of the United States

    after the victory of Lincoln, an undeniably sectional candidate; it was optimistic about the eventual outcome of its action. Before Lincoln's inauguration (March 1861) six more states followed (Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas). In February their representatives gathered in Montgomery, Ala., to form the CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA.

  2. The Prelude to the 1975 War and the Cairo Agreement.

    At first it encouraged its own Palestinian clients to compete in the process, facilitating the entrance of Sa'iqa, PFLP-GC, and Abu Musa's Fateh-Provisional Command into these areas. In camps under direct Syrian control, Nahr al-Barid and Baddawi in the north, and Wavell in the Bekaa, these groups quickly gained the upper hand.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work