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How true is it of any period you have studied that wars seldom succeed in removing the causes of conflict? (With particular reference to the issues of weak leadership and dynastic rivalries in the time of the Wars of the Roses )

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How true is it of any period you have studied that wars seldom succeed in removing the causes of conflict? (With particular reference to the issues of weak leadership and dynastic rivalries in the time of the Wars of the Roses) "History does not come into convenient segments or small, contained packages, sealed at both ends. Each period or event is a result of what went before and contributes, to a greater or lesser extent, to what follows."1 The Wars of the Roses were a series of dynastic civil wars in England fought by the rival houses of Lancaster and York between 1455 and 1485.2 There had been many issues that contributed to the main causes of the wars which were mainly the desire to reign, but also due to the incapacity in the monarchy, there were many fights between them for the throne. In the thirty years, the trouble surrounds a schizophrenic Henry VI, whose ineptitude finally led to war. Henry was also undermined by his queen, Margaret of Anjou, who attempted to rule England. This led to the intervention of Richard, Duke of York in the name of the king and to place the future Edward IV, his son, onto the throne. The conflicts erupted in some of the bloodiest and most dramatic battles in the history of England such as St Albans and the famous Bosworth. The families involved became wrapped up in violence, treachery and deceit as the two sides fought for control. The result was that both Lancaster and York houses suffered downfall, and the Tudor dynasty emerged. The Hundred Years' War with France finally ended in 1433, with the English defeated, led by King Henry IV. His predecessors had all tried in their turn, but the French war was finally over, but issues were waiting to be faced back home.3 However, Henry's reign could be said to be disappointing - now that Parliament had more say in how money was raised in taxes and how the King ...read more.


It also came to a point in which Edward was due to marry. "When a King married it is usually to unite two important families and perhaps increase the amount of land they owned."16 Edward's advisors wanted him to marry the sister of the French queen, which was aimed to keep peace between England and France. However, just as arrangements for the marriage were nearly complete - the King admitted that he was already married - a widow from a family that supported the Lancastrians. Early in Edward's reign, he "apparently entered into a marriage contract with the widowed Lady Elenor Butler, a daughter of Old Talbot, 'the terror of the French', in order to coax her to bed."17 However, Elizabeth Woodville refused his proposition until they were married. "With extraordinary lack of foresight the King agreed to her terms and the couple were secretly made man and wife, 'after which spousals ended, he went to bed and tarried there for four hours'."18 The Earl of Warwick had negotiated with France King Louis XI for a treaty involved in a marriage between Edward and a French princess, which would then lead to the Earl to receive French lands and titles as his rewards. Edward's announcement of his marriage therefore gave a blow to the power hungry Earl. This was worse when he learnt that Elizabeth was from a family with a Lancastrian background. Edward then made it clear that he was not going to be under the control of the Earl, which angered the power hungry Earl, who then decided to become the Kingmaker again, in which he set Henry free from the Tower of London and made him king again.19 This show how even the barons wanted charge of the situation, not to become king, but be able to receive rewards from their negotiations such as the Earl and the French King. This is seen as another cause for the Wars of the Roses. ...read more.


due to personal feuds themselves and not because they wanted to make Richard of York as king 12 Battle of Wakefield 1460 - The Yorkist were unprepared and hurried with a small force to face Queen Margaret without waiting for reinforcement. Richard died on battlefield and his head was later displayed on the gates of York 13 Battle of Towton 1461 - Richard of York's eldest son determined for revenge met the Lancastrians at Towton near Yorkshire and fought in a blizzard of wind and snow, ending in the massacre of Margaret's army 14 Both Lancaster and York houses came from their ancestor Edward III who reigned from 1312 -77 15 Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick was known as the Kingmaker because of his success of placing Edward onto the throne through defeating Henry VI and his queen Margaret 16 Nigel Smith; Medieval Monarchs 17 Antonia Fraser; The Wars of The Roses 18 Antonia Fraser; The Wars of The Roses 19 This was also known as another act from the Kingmaker 20 Antonia Fraser; The Wars of The Roses 21 Nigel Smith; Medieval Monarchs 22 Antonia Fraser; The Wars of The Roses 23 The 'Two Princes of the Tower' are famous for being the two sons Edward VI being locked up in the tower of London, supposedly by their uncle, who claimed the throne as his, by eliminating the proper successor 24 Nigel Smith; Medieval Monarchs 25 Descendent of Owen Tudor, the lord that Henry VI mother, Catherine remarried 26 Nigel Smith; Medieval Monarchs 27 Antonia Fraser; The Wars of The Roses 28 A coin was minted to commemorate the marriage in 1486, which helped bring together the Lancastrians and the Yorkists and bring about the peace between the warring families - Nigel Smith; Medieval Monarchs pg 41 29 A.L.Rowse; Bosworth Field & The Wars of The Roses; Wordsworth Editions 30 A.L.Rowse; Bosworth Field & The Wars of The Roses; Wordsworth Editions ...read more.

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