• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How true is it of any period you have studied that wars seldom succeed in removing the causes of conflict?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How true is it of any period you have studied that wars seldom succeed in removing the causes of conflict? The failure of the First World War to bring an end to international conflict in the modern era has led many historians to question the effectiveness of war as a mechanism to end and resolve conflict. Whilst it can be argued that the Second World War ended conflict on a worldwide scale, the aftermath of the wars have seen the world witness the enigmatically coined 'Cold War' and various disputes between countries and nationalities. The effects of developing states and the rising of new political theory evolving as a response to the status quo must also be taken into account in order to determine the effectiveness of warfare in removing the causes of conflict. This essay will argue that, within the sphere of modern history in the 20th Century, war has proven to be an ineffective method of removing the causes of conflict, the causes being inherently ideological and rooted in the societies of their predecessors, coming to the fore in a form of discontent as a reaction to events of the time. Although the First World War was the first modern-day major conflict that the world witnessed, it can be argued that the trigger associated with beginning the war, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand cannot alone be blamed for the outbreak of war. Instead, a school of thought that proposes that German provocation resulted from the assassination was "a tragedy of miscalculation"1 and that war was not intended to result the tension that enveloped Europe at the time. Indeed, the multitude of factors that led to the First World War, such as German desire to create an Empire of her own, an unprecedented rise in nationalism, stemming from the French Revolution, which bore, as Cunliffe believes, infused an "entire people... with the sweet life-giving doctrines of liberty, equality, fraternity"2 (and a tumulus period preceding it when the theories of Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud and Charles Darwin became prominent) ...read more.

Middle

Whilst a school of thought that exists which, supported by an earlier assessment by Taylor in 195017 at the beginning of the Cold War, argues that a post World War II settlement would learn from the mistakes of the past and produce a resolution that would satisfy all parties, the reality showed a conflict, once again, in ideology. The new threat of the Soviet Union, challenging the status quo of American supremacy and dominance at the end of the Second World War produced within the capitalist democracies a deep-seated fear that 'international revolution' preached first by Karl Marx in his theory of Marxism, and then by Trotsky and Lenin after the Russian Revolution in 1917, would occur and dismantle the social fabric of capitalism within Europe and beyond. The Yalta Conference, set up in February 1945 to allow deliberations over the future of Europe to take place, did little to relieve early tensions between what was to become two states embroiling for supremacy in a bi-polar world. In effect, Yalta exposed the vulnerability of the Western states and what they feared from their Communist partners in the East, whilst highlighting the potential for conflict in the future between these competing states, as highlighted by the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, when the U.S.A and the Soviet Union came closer than at any stage in world history full-scale nuclear war. The impact of the Second World War, however, did suggest that a shift in political thought would occur. Global politics, as Robbins believes, not only had an influence at the time, but moreover causes attitudes of the time to change as a reaction to the events that have taken place.18 In the same way as Carr believed Chamberlain to be a product of the post-war era,19 it can be argued that, in the same manner, Harry S. Truman, the American president in the wake of Franklin D. ...read more.

Conclusion

- E.H. Carr 4 The Origins of the Second World War - A.J.P. Taylor 5 Treaty achieved in the aftermath of France being invaded in 1814. 6 Op. Cit. - A.J.P. Taylor 7 The Inter-War Crisis - Richard Overy 8 Ibid. 9 Ibid. (Quote from Adolf Hitler in his sequel to Mein Kampf) 10 Ibid. 11 Op. Cit. - A.J.P. Taylor 12 Op. Cit. - E.H. Carr 13 The Legacy of the Great War - William R. Keylor 14 'Lebensraum' was the term Hitler coined for "living space" that he believed necessary in order for the expansion of Germany to be successful. 15 Mein Kampf - Adolf Hitler 16 Op. Cit. - E.H. Carr 17 Europe: Grandeur and Decline - A.J.P. Taylor. The significance of the date is that at this stage he agreed with the general consensus of historians i.e. Hitler was an evil dictator etc., whereas his notorious work, The Origins of the Second World War, published in 1961 at the very height of the Cold War suggests a chance in stance and attitude. 18 Appeasement - K. Robbins 19 Op. Cit. - E.H. Carr 20 This policy presented by Stalin enabled his rise to a dictator because it was seen as a 'safer' policy to continue with as opposed to the politically dangerous 'permanent international revolution' that Trotsky championed. 21 Marx: A Very Short Introduction - Peter Singer 22 The Cold War - Martin Walker 23 Ibid. 24 Direct quote - E.J. Hobsbawm 25 German philosopher, poet, and classical philologist, 1844-1900. One of the most provocative and influential thinkers of the 19th century, his beliefs on religion led him to conclude that the traditional values of Christianity which he believed to be amoral could be replaced by new values; his discussion of the possibility led to his concept of the 'overman' or superman, which was used by Hitler as a rationale to create a 'master race.' 26 The European Dictatorships: 1918-1945 - S.J. Lee 27 Ibid. 28 The Origins of the Second World War - A.J.P. Taylor 29 The Age of Empire: 1875-1914 - E.J. Hobsbawm Nicholas Corner 13LE 27/04/2007 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Arab-Israeli Conflict 1948-1996.

    The proposed settlement concerning the West Bank and Gaza was to take place in the next five years, however 800 000 Arabs could still be found inhabiting the area and did not recognise themselves as a part of Israel at all.

  2. Why did tension increase in Europe between 1900 and 1914?

    Machine guns * The machine gun was one of the most important weapons of the war. At first the British army did not take it seriously, each battalion had only two machine-guns in August 1914. This was increased to four by Kitchener, but in 1915 Lloyd George raised the number to 64.

  1. Japan: Post-Occupation Era 1952-80

    There was redistribution of population within Japan. It became basically urban. In 1945 farm households shared 50% of the population. By 1970 it dropped to less than 20%. In 1972 one of every nine Japanese lived in Tokyo, and one of every four in the Tokyo-Osaka belt??.????.

  2. UNIT 6: PAPER 6b: THE SOVIET UNION AFTER LENIN

    Images of him were everywhere. * Stalin's birthday was a national celebration. Cities were renamed after him. When he spoke applause lasted for many minutes - no one wanted to be the first to stop applauding! * He became the great leader of society in many aspects - film, art, morality as well as politics and the economy.

  1. Both sides were merely pursuing their legitimate interests. This was the crux-and the tragedy-of ...

    The exacerbation of the conflict in the June War of 1967 was again one of both sides pursuing their own legitimate interests, spiraling from the proclamation of the state of Israel in 1948. The involvement of the superpowers made the dispute more complicated and the Soviet backing of the Arab states gave impetus to Arab plans of eliminating Israel.

  2. Reasons for the increasing support given to NSDAP by the German people in the ...

    Later when in power the "Fuhrer myth" was to play an important part in maintaining the enthusiastic support of the public. The NSDAP was able to target a broad range of social groups with their energetic and tireless campaigning. The strategy used was to adjust the content of their propaganda to suit the audience.

  1. Does Realism as a statist Ideology exist today?

    Although resolutions that are made are not legally binding on states, it is in the interests of the states involved to take them into consideration, and furthermore, the UN is held in high regards, and therefore the decisions made in this made by the UN hold much weight in the realm of international world politics.

  2. THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

    The country was not ready for war. We did not have the weapons needed to fight Germany and Britain's defences were not yet strong enough. The French did not want war and we could not rely on Russian support. Q.2 Study SOURCE B. Why did Britain give in to Hitler's demands at Munich?

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work