• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How valid is the claim that the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan saved Western Europe from communism in the aftermath of the Second World War?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How valid is the claim that the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan saved Western Europe from communism in the aftermath of the Second World War? Danielle Solanki-Mensah The Truman Doctrine 1947 was a declaration of policy, in which America felt the right to protect the free people from the threat of communism. How America planned to do this was through the Marshall Plan 1947, where if a country requested, America would fund them in the fight against communism, and help to rebuild their economy. Some historians believe this policy to be what it is - helping countries to stay democratic, in the fight against the suppressive communism, other historians believe this to be a political move, where by offering money to needy countries, America was bribing its political alliance. Whatever their underlying motive, it would appear that they were successful. These two polices came just in time when Britain declared it could no longer support the civil war in Greece, and the fight for Turkey. ...read more.

Middle

Perhaps, they did not want to join the West in their crusade, and were content in their current situation. There are no uprisings or rebellions until the 50's, when Stalin was dead. This then leads to the possibility that Stalin was an extreme totalitarian compared to Khrushchev - if the people wanted to break free, who could they, if he controlled their governments with the Red Army? The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan only worked to a degree on non-communist countries, but were untouchable on Stalin and his sphere. This is probably why the Truman Doctrine was only a containment policy, and not one of total destruction - Stalin was too great a force to contend with (at the moment). Yet, there are many other cases that could have saved Western Europe from communism, or at least helped. The Iron Curtain speech in 1946 was a useful piece of propaganda that swayed the public opinion on communism. Churchill gave a speech stating there was an obvious divide between East and West Europe. ...read more.

Conclusion

Later in 1950, the Truman Doctrine was then abandoned. This might have been because of the development of the atomic bomb, so the NSC-68 was introduced - the idea to 'roll-back' communism. By abandoning the previous policies, does this mean that they were no longer successful in their aim, or maybe, they were no longer relevant? It seems that from the three years that were in play, they were the most significant factor in saving Western Europe from communism. Although, it was not the sole saviour; the path was paved with the Iron Curtain Speech and it was justified by the Long Telegram. At the same time, the two policies were the causes of some problems, nor could they solve some - the sphere of influence for one. What made them so successful was that there was no retaliation from the East - probably because they did not have the military, economic or political power to counteract. When the East finally did catch up, it was then when the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan were abandoned, proving only to be successful because it was allowed to be so. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Explain how the Schlieffen Plan was meant to work?

    confidence in the leadership of their commander', however we know that this is not true because his men hated him and thought he was stupid. This shows that Source F is not wrong. I think that Source H is biased because it's written by a general and not soldiers.

  2. Why did tension increase in Europe between 1900 and 1914?

    In 1955 Khrushchev set up the Warsaw Pact. The U-2 Incident On 1 May 1960, the Soviet Union shot down a U-2 and put the pilot Gary Powers on trial. Why was the U-2 Incident important? * Only a few days later Khrushchev met the US President Eisenhower at a Summit Meeting in Paris.

  1. Why did Mao Zedong introduce a second five year plan in 1958 and to ...

    Deng believed in trade with overseas countries, this was something Mao would have feared; also he believed that only people of political importance should gain wealth. Under Deng, private sectors were growing and there were new ideas circulating, he welcomed foreigners into the country and people were encouraged to learn new languages.

  2. In what ways did the Second World War affect the lives of ordinary people ...

    In fact the poor often found their diets became more balanced and full, as before they could not afford the rich in protein and fat foods like bacon, cheese and sugar.

  1. The Marshall Plan.

    A Summary of the Marshall Plan Even now a model for positive economic diplomacy, the Marshall Plan was a rational effort by the United States aimed at reducing the hunger, homelessness, sickness, unemployment, and political restlessness of the 270 million people in sixteen nations in West Europe.

  2. An Investigation Into the Way in Which Sir Winston Churchill Used Rhetoric During the ...

    This crocodile metaphor helps to make a strong case for the neutrals to join in the Allied war effort. Yet, the plea fell on deaf ears. Denmark and Norway remained neutral until Germany invaded them on April 9, 1940. The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France were invaded in the following month, as Churchill became Prime Minister.

  1. The Collapse of Communism in the USSR and Eastern Europe

    as a strong realpolitik contingent in the West had spurned the human rights issue as an unnecessary ideological digression. It was only as Jimmy Carter's public promotion of humanitarianism, a tactic which had been rarely used since Vietnam, succeeded in gaining popular support, that U.S.

  2. Why did communism collapse in Eastern Europe?

    had Soviet-imposed puppet regimes. Stalin's domination was now total. After the war Stalin succeeded in establishing a communist buffer zone between Russia and Western Europe. Any resistance he met in establishing communist states was quickly suppressed by intimidation and terror. For example Stalin engineered a communist coup in May 1948 in Czechoslovakia in which a government minister Masaryk was killed and the president was forced to resign.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work