• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In 1945, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Why did the Americans decide to carry out these attacks? Explain your answer.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

In 1945, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Why did the Americans decide to carry out these attacks? Explain your answer. The events leading up to the dropping of the first atomic bomb can be traced back to 7th December 1941, when the Japanese attacked the US Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbour. Taking the Americans by surprise, the Japanese planes destroyed or damaged 18 ships and 347 aircraft, which were stationed there. More than 2,400 Americans were killed, and more than 1,000 men were wounded. This attack caused the Americans to declare war on Japan on 8th December 1941. In 1943 and 1944, the Japanese were being pushed back. The Japanese lost four aircraft carriers in the naval battle off Midway Island in the Pacific. By 1944, the Americans could therefore send bombers against Japan, with little resistance shown against them. In April 1945, US forces beat the Japanese on Okinawa, a small offshore Japanese island. However, Allied losses were very high and American President Truman decided to drop the atomic bomb, firstly on Hiroshima on 6th August 1945, causing 130,000 deaths, and secondly on Nagasaki on 9th August 1945, causing around 66,000 deaths. The Japanese surrendered soon after, on 14th August. So why did Truman decide to order these bombs, which would cause so many deaths for the Japanese, to be dropped? ...read more.

Middle

When Truman was contemplating dropping of the atomic bomb, two bombs were ready to be dropped. Both 'Little Boy' and 'Fat Man' had been tested successfully on 16th July 1945 (the 'Trinity Test'), and the scientists were therefore keen to use them. The costs involved in Manhattan Project ran to $2 billion. As the costs were so high, the money had to be justified to the American public, and so the bomb had to be used - otherwise it would be seen as a waste of money. Just using one bomb, or just doing a demonstration to 'scare' the Japanese into surrender wouldn't have been enough in the minds of the 'Japanese hating' American public. During the Potsdam Conference (17th July to 2nd August 1945), Truman, Churchill, and Stalin met to discuss the rebuilding of Europe, now that Germany had surrendered, and also the current war with Japan. (Attlee took Churchill's place after the election in Britain.) At first, Truman wanted Stalin to declare war on Japan (this Stalin did on 15th August), after which it was planned that American, British and Soviet forces would invade Japan. But while at Potsdam, Truman was told that the atomic bomb had been successfully tested the day before. He now decided that he didn't need help from the Soviet Union after all. ...read more.

Conclusion

They saw the combined sea blockade, conventional bombings, Soviet attack and the atomic bomb as a way to get the result they wanted. This strategy was described by Secretary of War Henry L Stimson as 'maximum force with maximum speed'. Truman was not trying to avoid using the bomb. As Stimson explained after the war, 'No effort was made and none seriously considered to achieve surrender merely in order not to have the bomb.' In addition, showing the destructive power of the bomb would hopefully increase the possibility of preventing future wars. Therefore, having looked at the reasons that I believe caused the Americans to decide that dropping an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki was the best course of action, I can conclude that the main reason was that the atomic bomb was ready for use, and gave the Allies an opportunity to end the war quickly without further American casualties. Though huge Japanese casualties would be the result, other methods would lead to even more casualties. The wish to stop the Soviet Union taking over part of a defeated Japan meat that the decision had to be mad straight away. In my opinion, the main reason for America choosing to drop the atomic bomb, was the reason that Truman, and the Allies wished that the war with Japan would finish quickly, with the least amount of lives lost. bjbjUU -B7|7 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Truman had several reasons for dropping the atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    At nearly 08:00, the radar operator in Hiroshima determined that the number of planes coming in was very small- probably not more than three- and the air raid alert was lifted. At 08:15, the Enola Gay dropped the nuclear bomb called "Little Boy" over the center of Hiroshima.

  2. Was The Dropping Of The Atomic Bombs On Hiroshima And Nagasaki Justified?

    These meaning the Japanese were ready for the Americans and were heavily equipped and prepared. Also from the memoirs of Harry Truman who became American president in 1945 had said that the fighting was going to be fierce and therefore might cost half a million American lives.

  1. This graduation paper is about U.S. - Soviet relations in Cold War period. Our ...

    Throughout this period, American officials appeared to encourage the Soviet initiative. Secretary of the Treasury Morgenthau had come up with his own plan for a $10 billion loan at 2 percent interest. When Chamber of Commerce head Eric Johnson visited Moscow, Stalin told him: "I like to do business with American businessmen.

  2. The Prelude to the 1975 War and the Cairo Agreement.

    As the fighting intensified Gemayel called an urgent meeting with Begin and convinced him that the Syrians intended to follow through on the siege with an all-out attack on the Christian heartland and urged Israel to launch an air strike against the Syrians.

  1. An evaluation of the United States decision to use atomic bombs against Hiroshima and ...

    There can be no doubt that minimizing American casualties was a priority for President Truman but it would be unreasonable to assume that this was the sole factor influencing such a tremendous decision. The Manhattan project gave America an international edge on nuclear technology.

  2. Why did President Truman Decide to Drop the Two Atomic Bombs On Hiroshima and ...

    The rate of wounded to fatalities was estimated to be 3 to 1, so 175,000 US casualties were not out of the question. However these early reports were rejected by George Marshall, the army's chief of staff. Another estimate was put forward by Admiral Leahy, he concluded that it would

  1. Free essay

    Did America drop the bomb in revenge, to prevent the USSR spreading, so Truman ...

    Another historical approach is that the bomb was dropped to save, as Truman put it, "half a million lives". Although J. Samuel Walker clearly agrees that the main reason the bomb was dropped was to save lives, he disagrees with the figures "There was no evidence that he received information...an invasion...would cost...as many as 500,000".

  2. History course work bombing of Hiroshima

    This source is also not in support because he is Japanese citizen so would not like anything America does because they were at war with them at that time and fro what they had done and as he was effected this source may be biased as he was Japanese and

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work