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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 24
  • Peer Reviewed essays 4
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  5. 86
  1. Marked by a teacher

    How significant was Chinas intervention in deciding the course and outcome of the Korean War?

    5 star(s)

    Although this force was made up of 300,000 poorly equipped fighters, they were experienced fighters as many had already fought in the Chinese Civil War. Initially, it seemed that the Chinese intervention was âtoo little, too lateâ, as they lost their first major battle with the UN forces, and in October 1950, the ROKâs troops crossed the 38th Parallel. In addition to this, the US Eighth Army captured the capital of North Korea on the 20th October 1950, as well as the X command capturing the important port of Wonsan on the East Coast.

    • Length: 1492 words
  2. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent is the oil crisis of 1973 a turning point in postwar economic development?

    5 star(s)

    All these suggest otherwise: either that other events qualify more as a "turning point" than the oil crisis, or that there remained continuity of certain phenomenon in the global economy even after the event, implying that it failed to become a watershed event. Firstly, one reason why the 1973 oil crisis can be regarded as a turning point would be its resulting in a basic change in world geopolitics. For the first time in history, the oil producing countries took over the power of decision-making of global economic matters from the US.

    • Length: 2301 words
  3. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent was the alliance system responsible for the outbreak of World War One in 1914

    5 star(s)

    Another vital alliance was that of Austria-Hungary and Germany. In July, 1914, Germany had given a Carte Blanche to Austria-Hungary, promising unconditional support in case of war. This encouraged Austro-Hungarian aggressive policies, contributing to the problems in the Balkans. France and Russia had numerous agreements, many financially based. These treaties turned anti-German as war became more and more plausible, and tied Russia and France together. The final alliance that needs mention is that of Britain and Belgium. The British public saw it as their duty to protect the Belgian people1 and, following the execution of the Schlieffen Plan in 1914, the British Government saw it as their duty to follow their agreement on protecting the neutrality of the country and joined the war.

    • Length: 1325 words
  4. Marked by a teacher

    How far was the Boer War, 1899-1902, a turning point in the history of the British Empire

    5 star(s)

    Moreover, the acquisition of land was seen as part of Britain's mission of 'civilising' the lesser nations through being the "world's policeman". In the traditional "Pax Britanica" view the British Empire was seen as spreading peace and prosperity around the world. This increased its domestic popularity and resulted in widespread support of imperialism. Thus, prior to the Boer War the Empire was viewed with pride, being seen as a source of economic prosperity, prestige and moral interest by all political parties as well as by general society.

    • Length: 1905 words
  5. Marked by a teacher

    "Asses the successes and failures of Mao's domestic policies between 1949 and 1976."

    5 star(s)

    In 1949, Mao launched the Organic law which divided China into 6 subdivisions. Each of these were regulated by offices and bureaus, which also included officials. Force was used to achieve a certain level of stability. His second movement was the Agrarian Reform Law. The communist party workers were dispatched to each village to implement it. The land in the villages was shared between the peasants, and the peasants put the landlords on trial in the "people's courts." Many of those landlords were beaten, imprisoned or even executed after having stood accused of abusing their tenants and charging high rents for their own benefits.

    • Length: 1713 words
  6. Marked by a teacher

    The collapse of the USSR was caused by internal problems and had nothing to do with the Cold War. Assess this view.

    4 star(s)

    As such, this essay espouses that it was an amalgamation of both factors both within and outside the USSR that served as a foundation, catalysis, turning point and trigger that resulted in the disintegration of the USSR. The decline of the USSR which resulted in its eventual breakdown found its roots all the way back to its inception and foundation. The Soviet economic system, based on a command economy whereby the state determined its course rather than the market based economy which the rest of the world adopted was inherently flawed.

    • Length: 1195 words
  7. Marked by a teacher

    The Soviet Union developed its influence in Eastern Europe in the years 1945 1949 because it simply wanted to guarantee its security in the future. How valid is this assessment?

    4 star(s)

    Within the Arab-Israeli and Angola conflicts the USSR never deployed troops and only aided one side within these conflicts compared to when they wanted to expand their sphere of influence into Eastern Europe, they installed the Red Army into the Eastern European states to occupy them. In Angola the USSR wasn't acting aggressively due to Cuba having sent troops and aid to the FNLA party within Angola as they supported communism, the Soviets felt that because they were the arbiter of communism at that time or at least contesting to be they should help their fellow communist nations, also this

    • Length: 821 words
  8. Marked by a teacher

    How far do you agree that Lenins leadership was the main reason why the Bolsheviks were able to seize power?

    4 star(s)

    lack of control over the countryside and so peasants seized control of land again proving the lack of authority the provisional government held. Ultimately all of these problems and the lack of authority was a huge factor in the downfall of the Provisional Government, you could argue that the government would have been overthrown without Lenin's leadership of the Bolsheviks as it was already widely unpopular and failing dramatically. Another way in which the Bolsheviks were able to seize power is again thanks to the Provisional Government.

    • Length: 835 words
  9. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent do you accept the view that the USA and the USSR were already divided by irreconcilable differences by the end of the fighting in Europe in May 1945?

    4 star(s)

    The two nations were already divided due to their ideological differences as highlighted in source 1 which is from the orthodox perspective. According to the USA, 'The USSR was a revolutionary state' inherently driven by Marxist-Leninist ideologies of world communist revolution. Therefore the USSR was already hostile to the west as its ideologies threatened the existence of democratic nations. The USSR was hoping to establish security along its borders by implementing soviet friendly governments which would be communist in nature. This was because the USSR perceived it to be in a 'hostile and threatening world' as outlined by source 1.

    • Length: 1344 words
  10. Marked by a teacher

    Russell Baker's Growing Up

    4 star(s)

    His strong aptitude for writing coupled with his early career induced knowledge of historical events provides an autobiography of not only a man, but an era. The era in which these careers emanated from was the Great Depression. Baker tells of his family's struggles and really provides the reader great understanding by recalling exact prices and so forth. He tells of a time when his stern and proud mother gave in to relief. This was what the program of government hand outs of food was known as.

    • Length: 1398 words
  11. Marked by a teacher

    Was the collapse of the USSR historically inevitable?

    4 star(s)

    In order to understand the Collapse of the Soviet Union, some historical facts need to be reminded2. After the death of Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev became General Secretary of the Communist Party of SU. In 1956, he betrayed during the twentieth Congress of the Party the brutal and repressive policy of Stalin and began a relatively more opened policy, within and outside the Soviet Union, in spite of the repression in Budapest the same year. Nevertheless, he failed his attempts of agricultural and industrial reforms, and the fiascos of the Berlin Blockade and Cuban missiles crisis damaged the Soviet prestige.

    • Length: 1957 words
  12. Marked by a teacher

    How important was foreign intervention in the unification of Italy by 1870?

    4 star(s)

    In 1849, France dispatched its forces to topple the new republican government of Mazzini and restore the Pope. This of course destabilised nationalists' aspiration of a united Italy. In 1858, Cavour and Napoleon arrived at what is known as a gentleman's agreement held at Plombieres in which France will support Piedmont with two hundred thousand troops in the event of war between Austria and Piedmont. Both men also agreed that after this war with Austria which hopefully will oust the Austrians from Italian territories, Italy will become a federal state made up of the kingdom of north Italy, the central duchies, Rome and the south Italian kingdom with the Pope as its president.

    • Length: 672 words
  13. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent is Rambo: First Blood Part 2 typical of Hollywood main stream cinema's treatment of gender in the 1980's?

    4 star(s)

    Rambo's mission in this film is to go back to Vietnam and see if he can find a camp that he is told has many POW's. If he finds the men, he can only take photographs but he has a problem with this and risks his own life to save them. He is very strong and muscular and is able to defeat the soldiers, Russian and Vietnamese, single handed. Douglas Kellner states that the film; 'Follows the conventions of the Hollywood genre of the "war film", which dramatizes conflicts between the United States and its "enemies" and provides a happy ending that portrays the victory of good over evil.'

    • Length: 2052 words
  14. Marked by a teacher

    How far do you agree that the actions of the USSR were primarily responsible for the division of Germany in 1949?

    3 star(s)

    The allies disagreed as it seemed similar to the approach tried after the First World War in the Treaty of Versailles (1919) and realised Stalin's plan would not work. As well as this there was a breakdown in cooperation due to Soviet intrusions in Eastern Europe. If the allies were to agree at all, Germany must be split and so the actions of the USSR were primarily responsible. Secondly, Stalin's introduction of communist-style government in the Soviet zone and in other areas shows that the USSR's actions were primarily responsible for the division of Germany.

    • Length: 903 words
  15. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent was America's policy of containment successful? Use Korea, Cuba and Vietnam in your investigation.

    3 star(s)

    North Korea was supported by Communist China and the Soviet Union, and South Korea was supported by the United States and its Western allies. Communist North Korea sought to spread its influence and control to the South. In October 1950, hostility spilled over into open warfare. North Korean troops overwhelmed the South Korean forces and by September 1950 all except a small corner of South Korea was under Communist control. Once the North Koreans invaded, the Americans with the help of their strong allies managed to push the North Koreans back and continued fighting ensured that the North Korean army lost its footing on South Korean soil.

    • Length: 1063 words
  16. Marked by a teacher

    Does the film 'The Battle of The Somme' provide us with a realistic picture of what it was like to be a British soldier in the trenches?

    3 star(s)

    The government could also have only selected the views that they wanted for the film so they may have left out the gory bits and pictures showing the British Forces suffering. The way that the film portrays Equipment and Supplies can be supported by many of the sources, the sources suggest that the British had plenty of food and drink, they also show the British with high stacks of boxes full of food and drink. Some of the sources also imply that they had plenty of artillery and shells, so that they didn't run out during mid-battle, they also had a lot of guns and men ready to shoot the Germans.

    • Length: 1653 words
  17. Marked by a teacher

    All of these factors helped to break stalemate: New Technology, The American entry into the war, the blockade of German ports and the German offensive in March 1918.How far do you agree with this statement?

    3 star(s)

    There were only a few tanks in the Battle of the Somme and the element of surprise was wasted but the Germans didn't copy the idea until it was too late. Attacks at Cambria with the 378 Mark IV tanks without a preliminary bombardment but with a creeping barrage was a great success. The outcome of this was a 5-mile advance towards the Hindenburg line and this created a 6-mile gap. Reinforcements were out of reach for the Germans. As the British reserves were in Italy this break though could not be exploited.

    • Length: 1198 words
  18. Marked by a teacher

    Explain why America became increasingly involved in the affairs of Vietnam

    3 star(s)

    The war between France and the Vietminh dragged on for eight years and the Vietminh used the guerrilla tactics against the French. The guerrilla tactics were very effective, as the terrain was suitable. The Vietminh would hide in the thick jungle and sniper off the French soldiers. The Vietminh eventually defeated the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954. Britain, France, China the Soviet Union, the United States, and Vietnam had already arranged to meet in May 1954 in Geneva, Switzerland.

    • Length: 4584 words
  19. Marked by a teacher

    World War One Sources Question

    3 star(s)

    However, the French had not put up any defences on the French/Belgian border as Belgium was a neutral country and the French would not expect an attack from there. Part of the Schlieffen Plan, therefore, was to attack through Belgium and the Germans hoped that the Belgians would just let them through. However, even if the Belgians did put up a fight it would not matter as they only had a small army that would swiftly be defeated by the German army. In the plan the German army was now in France but what was the best of taking France?

    • Length: 2153 words
  20. Marked by a teacher

    Why Did The USA Become Increasingly Involved In The Vietnam War?

    3 star(s)

    Following the surrender of Nazi Germany in May 1945 near the close of World War II, the uneasy wartime alliance between the United States and Great Britain on the one hand and the Soviet Union on the other began to unravel. By 1948 the Soviets had installed left-wing governments in the countries of Eastern Europe that had been liberated by the Red Army. The Americans and the British feared the permanent Soviet domination of Eastern Europe and the threat of Soviet-influenced communist parties coming to power in the democracies of Western Europe.

    • Length: 1517 words
  21. Peer reviewed

    How far do you agree that the Cold War broke out in Europe because the USA and the USSR disagreed fundamentally about how they should treat the shattered European economy?

    4 star(s)

    So, was the disagreement on how to deal with the shattered European economy between the USA and USSR the sole reason for the Cold War? I would agree with this statement only to a small extent, due to the presence of other equal or more important factors which led to the Cold War. First of all, one of the main reasons for conflict that led to the Cold War was the different ideas both superpowers had in place for post-war Europe.

    • Length: 2071 words
  22. Free essay

    The development of the international economy in the period 1945-2000 favoured rich countries at the expense of the poor. How far do you agree?

    4 star(s)

    The institutions were largely inclined towards accelerating the post-war economic reconstruction in Western Europe and Japan to deter Soviet communism, through economic subversion, from taking root in these economically recovered countries. As the 2nd and 3rd world LDCs did not play an active role in the global (capitalist) economy before 1945, they were neglected and much lesser priority was placed on it as compared to the WE economies which were more possibly influenced by the approximate Soviet communist bloc. For one, GATT was generally pro-west in preventing a communist manifestation globally.

    • Length: 2324 words
  23. Free essay

    To what extent did the nuclear arms race make the world a more dangerous place in the years 1949-63?

    3 star(s)

    This stimulated the arms race and creating a resilient competitive atmosphere between the world powers. In result obviously the damages of the consequences would be greater than of the atomic bomb more, therefore this placed the world in a dangerous position. For the super powers the arms race was a perfect chance to demonstrate their advancement in terms of economy, the side with the most extensive resource, or most powerful weapons was the stronger, therefore the most appealing. This opportunity however posed a great threat to world security as in 1949, the US nuclear monopoly was ended by the Soviets, who tested their own atomic bomb.

    • Length: 1119 words
  24. Peer reviewed

    1938 job employment Germany

    3 star(s)

    Goerring, the new control over trade instinctively sped up rearmament so that the import value that would have been spent on food for the people, were spent on raw materials for the army. The aim of employing the nation was a definite success, with only 0.2 million unemployed by 1938, and an overall success of 0.8 million more employed in comparison with1928. However wages for the employed steadily decreased as a percentage of national income. The Public Works Schemes brought about a large number of jobs in building of autobahns and hoems.

    • Length: 1088 words
  25. Fundamentally, the Cold War broke out because of a clash of national interests rather than a clash of ideology.Discuss

    Hence a clash of ideology is only secondary to a clash of national interests in leading to the start of cold war. The economic division of Europe which led to the start of two opposing blocs in Europe was caused by conflicting US economic interests and Soviet Union's need for national security. The Marshall Plan created a distinct division between East and West Europe. The implementation of the Marshall Plan was supposedly to help the European states to recover from the economic hardship that they were facing after WWII and also boost their economies.

    • Length: 1180 words

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Analyse the Reasons for Bolivar's Failure to Unite the Countries He Liberated

    "In conclusion, one realises that there were a varying number of factors that contributed to Bolivar's failure to unite the Latin American States. These reasons however branch off of two specific factors. Firstly, Bolivar refused to accept the states' newfound nationalism as a strong and important factor, to understand the differences among the states. This showed in the elites' unwillingness to accept Bolivar's grand plans for their independent nations. Secondly, Bolivar, against his earlier judgement attempted to manage a republic over too vast a geographical area. As he could not be everywhere at once, his large republic became increasingly difficult to maintain. Eventually this led to individuals acting freely in his absence. Though Bolivar was quite a humble gentleman, he allowed those around him to persuade him that his popularity as 'liberator' would allow him to be successful in his plans. 1 Belaunde, Victor A. Bolivar and the Political Thought of the Spanish American Revolution, 1967."

  • The First World War was the result of a badly mismanaged Balkan crisis in the summer of 1914 rather than the product of long standing rivalries between the great powers" Assess the truth of this opinion

    "In conclusion, I think that the immediate cause of the outbreak of war was definitely the July crisis in the summer of 1914. However the crucial decisions made by the leading figure were in fact influenced by the rise in international tension from about 1905 which was partly generated by the German policy of Weltpolitik. It's obvious to say that between 1905 and 1913 no-one is authority actually wanted a war and Britain in the actual crisis of the summer of 1914 was neither planning a war nor even sure about what to do in the event of one whereas the Germans as early as 8th July 1912 had discussions about a possible war. The outbreak of war was not a result of a badly mismanaged Balkan crisis in the summer of 1914, it was the final straw of long-standing rivalries."

  • Geoffroy d'AspremontForeign Policy II - Dr Ann Hughes "Discuss the importance of location in states' foreign policy behaviour and assess how technological change has affected the significance of location."

    "In conclusion, technological advances have only slightly affected the importance of location in the foreign policy behaviour. It permits to strong states to diminish, to some extent, the disadvantages of their locations. As for weak states, they try to take advantage of their locations to fill their lack of technology. In spite of his modern army, the Soviet army was unable to destroy the resistance in the Mountainous Afghanistan. America can invade Iraq and Afghanistan with its advanced weapons but has neither shattered the Iraqis' resistance nor captured Bin-Laden."

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