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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991
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The Soviet Union developed its influence in Eastern Europe in the years 1945 1949 because it simply wanted to guarantee its security in the future. How valid is this assessment?4 star(s)
Within the Arab-Israeli and Angola conflicts the USSR never deployed troops and only aided one side within these conflicts compared to when they wanted to expand their sphere of influence into Eastern Europe, they installed the Red Army into the Eastern European states to occupy them. In Angola the USSR wasn't acting aggressively due to Cuba having sent troops and aid to the FNLA party within Angola as they supported communism, the Soviets felt that because they were the arbiter of communism at that time or at least contesting to be they should help their fellow communist nations, also this
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How far do you agree that Lenins leadership was the main reason why the Bolsheviks were able to seize power?4 star(s)
lack of control over the countryside and so peasants seized control of land again proving the lack of authority the provisional government held. Ultimately all of these problems and the lack of authority was a huge factor in the downfall of the Provisional Government, you could argue that the government would have been overthrown without Lenin's leadership of the Bolsheviks as it was already widely unpopular and failing dramatically. Another way in which the Bolsheviks were able to seize power is again thanks to the Provisional Government.
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In 1849, France dispatched its forces to topple the new republican government of Mazzini and restore the Pope. This of course destabilised nationalists' aspiration of a united Italy. In 1858, Cavour and Napoleon arrived at what is known as a gentleman's agreement held at Plombieres in which France will support Piedmont with two hundred thousand troops in the event of war between Austria and Piedmont. Both men also agreed that after this war with Austria which hopefully will oust the Austrians from Italian territories, Italy will become a federal state made up of the kingdom of north Italy, the central duchies, Rome and the south Italian kingdom with the Pope as its president.
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How far do you agree that the actions of the USSR were primarily responsible for the division of Germany in 1949?3 star(s)
The allies disagreed as it seemed similar to the approach tried after the First World War in the Treaty of Versailles (1919) and realised Stalin's plan would not work. As well as this there was a breakdown in cooperation due to Soviet intrusions in Eastern Europe. If the allies were to agree at all, Germany must be split and so the actions of the USSR were primarily responsible. Secondly, Stalin's introduction of communist-style government in the Soviet zone and in other areas shows that the USSR's actions were primarily responsible for the division of Germany.
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The Soviet Union was aggressively expansionist and showed little enthusiasm for dtente. How valid is this statement?
This is linked also with the USA's globalism, Truman's Doctrine vilified the USSR among the American people which gave Marshall aid a solid purpose, to save these countries from communist oppression. The Russians were also made an enemy of by Kennan's Long Telegram coupled with Churchill' Iron Curtain speech. The telegram stated that the Russians are 'aggressive expansionists.' Not only does this follow on from my previous point that the USA vilified the Soviets but also the Russians expanded gradually, this disproves a large chunk of the telegram as it cannot be aggressive expansionism if the Russians were expanding gradually and through elections often.
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Placing nuclear weapons in Cuba was a reckless piece of international gambling by Khrushchev that achieved nothing of significance for the USSR. How valid is this view?
This is an incredible risk to put nuclear arms so close to the USA and risk a possibility of nuclear war to impress China, although this obviously wasn't the main reason it still was a factor. The protection of Cuba and its communist revolution was also in the mind of Khrushchev when installing the weapons into Cuba, however a large amount of the worry surrounding the situation could have been lessened if conventional weapons were used instead due to there being a lessened opinion of regular military forces because at the time all of the media and worry was about nuclear arms and the damage a nuclear war could to do everyone on a global scale.
- Word count: 860
How far do you agree that US support in the years 1945-48 was the most important factor in the creation of an independent state of Israel?
Many western countries wanted to create a homeland for the Jews where they could settle and feel safe. There was particularly strong support in the US where the Jewish population put pressure on the US government. President Truman called on the British government to allow 100,000 Jewish refugees to enter Palestine. But the British refused claiming that it would be unfair to the Arabs and lead to civil war in Palestine.
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How far do you agree that, for the GDR (East Germany), the results of the building of the Berlin Wall proved to be mainly negative?
A further point is that by the late 1960s unrest in Eastern European countries such as Czechoslovakia meant that the government of the GDR had to end what could have been a beneficial 'New Economic System' and bring back tighter state control showing that from the wall, inhabitants of the GDR had gained nothing. Due to this it could be argued that the building of the Berlin Wall proved to be mainly negative for them. It could also be argued that it was mainly negative because while in the West the wall was covered with political messages in the form of graffiti; in the East the crossing of the boundary was punishable by death.
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The fact is that whatever the monster has, Victor is lacking for example, and the monster has love for everyone and is not prejudiced, Victor only love himself as he makes it clear during the novel and maybe he appreciates Clerval but only because Henry is what he wanted to be in the future. Also and most importantly Victor has something the monster will never have, a name, and not only a simple name he has a very well known and prosper name, the monster will never be known and disappear in oblivion, whilst the Frankenstein name will perjure forever, like he says in the begging of the novel, "I was willing to achieve the fame".
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A US official described Bao Dai's government as 'in no way the servant to the people'. The same US official described Ho Chi Minh as 'a popular hero'. Ho Chi Minh was a Vietnamese Nationalist who was one of the most influential Communist leaders of the 20th century, he led the Vietnamese people to victory to the Japanese, the French and the USA. Ho was seen as patriotic as he cared about the Vietnamese people and fairly gave land, education and health care gaining the hearts of the peasants in Vietnam. For this reason Ho Chi Minh was, to some extent, reason for French failure at Indochina.
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Eastern Europe had been brought into the Soviet sphere of influence as buffer states against any possible western invasion. With nuclear technology, Eastern Europe's role as a buffer state has ceased to be of any significance. Moreover, Eastern Europe proved to be a long-term economic drain on the Soviet Union. On one hand, concessions were made to Eastern European states to keep them Soviet-friendly, draining resources. On the other, under the Brezhnev Doctrine, Soviet military forces were required to enter Eastern Europe to quell any uprisings of sort, as can be seen from the 1956 Hungary uprising and the 1968 uprising in Czechoslovakia.
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Identity evolves from adapting to new environments throughout life. Sometimes an identity stays the same and sometimes it constantly changes. The reason why many immigrants face many challenges trying to fit in is because their cultural identity suffers some sort of rejection or intolerance coming from Canadians who are afraid of changing and evolving their culture rather than accepting new ones and treating them with compassion. This unfair treatment causes a foreign person to feel inferior because of cultural roots and therefore, lack self-esteem. This also forces a person to assume that their own culture is not good enough, and they pretend to be something they are not in
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Throughout history Napoleon was portrayed in many different ways, to some people he was a hero, and to others he was a political tyrant.
He treated all his soldiers equally, which improved their moral and made them an effective fighting force. This great bond proved beneficial when his old soldiers chose to go come back to him before the battle of waterloo, to fight along side him. This event showed that he was incredibly forgiving and understanding. Napoleon was able to look past their disloyalty, and treat them as if nothing had happened. He even welcomed back his former general who had traded allegiances to become a minster to the king. Napoleon believed that they should all focus their energy on defeating the British and less on trying to overthrow the political opposition in France.
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The Vietminh fought with primitive weapons and tactics against the French who used modern weapons systems supplied by the US. The Vietminh fought an asymmetrical war; such struggles often involve strategies and tactics of unconventional warfare, the "weaker" combatants attempting to use strategy to offset deficiencies in quantity or quality. They fought using "Guerrilla" tactics; the US was coming round to this type of fighting having experienced it in the "Island hopping" phase of World War Two, by starting to use Special Forces teams, but was still majorly inexperienced in this area.
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Other testing was conducted in the early 1960's in Thailand. The manufacturers who produced Agent Orange in the military were Dow, Monsanto, Diamond Shamrock Corporation, Hercules Inc, Uniroyal Inc, T-H Agricultural and Nutrition Company, and Thompson Chemicals Corporation. The product was called Agent Orange because the fifty-five gallon drums had orange identifying bands when the product was shipped. Other herbicides used in Vietnam were also color coded, such as Agent White, Agent Blue, Agent Purple, Agent Pink, and Agent Green.
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The human loss of life was also another reason why Apartheid was abolished in 1990. One hundred or so people killed in mass riots or even one or two people who were tortured and then murdered, caused a lot of media coverage and a lot of hate from people who did not like Apartheid both internally and externally. When Steve 'Bantu' Biko was imprisoned, then brutally murdered, then driven one thousand kilometers away to a hospital many people were absolutely outraged, it was even published in English newspapers.
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However from around 1918 onwards the British Empire suffered from an increase in Nationalism as the countries of the empire wanted independence. At this point the British still felt that the empire had economic potential and could provide Britain with economic growth to increase its power so instead of giving the countries of the empire independence the British followed a policy of Colonial Economic Development (CED). However after McMillan's profit and loss analysis it was clear that CED was ineffective and the cost of holding onto the Empire outweighed the advantages it provided.
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Mao took a real blow here but did not give up. In 1963, he launched the Socialist Education Movement. This aimed at motivating the younger generation of China to rise up and bring back socialist ideals. Despite the acceptance of the movement by the Communist Party Mao was loosing power. This was to become the setting of the Cultural Revolution during which China was plunged into anarchy. The Cultural Revolution was launched in 1966. Mao, having just vanquished Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping in the power struggle ordered the younger generation of China to rebel.
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Hitler did not want to do this and so in 1936 he hired Hermann Goring as his Economics advisor instead of Schacht. Goring was a Nazi that didn't have much experience in Economics but always agreed with Hitler which was important to him. Goring set up the Four Year Plan which was similar to the New Plan in that it wanted to reduce imports and make the country autarkic which was a self sufficient defence economy but it had a larger emphasis on rearmament.
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The role of Metternich also made Mazzini unsuccessful as he intervened on a regular basis with Italian political issues. As the Vienna Settlement allowed the legitimate rulers back to Italy, Metternich as a figurehead of the Austrian government provided support for the Restored Monarchs by suppressing potential revolutionaries. So Metternich used the power of Austria to his advantage to stop the likes of Mazzini from creating a mass movement that wanted unification rather than individual states ran by different monarchs so therefore this made Mazzini unsuccessful.
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The American forces left Cuba, in 1909. Following that, Cuba had a democratic government for fifteen years. In 1924 a Liberal party politician by the name of Gerardo Machado, came to power and seized the Cuban government. He fiercely ruled until 1933, when an army revolt led by Sergeant Fulgencio Batista placed Ramon Grau San Martin, another Liberal Party politician, in office. Grau removed Batista from office in 1934, and ruled Cuba as a dictator until 1944, although several presidents held office. In 1934, Cuba and the United States signed a treaty that abolished the Platt Amendment.
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Once Germany had been forced to accept responsibility for the war it was made to repay the other countries for the damage. This was called the Reparations. Germany also had to hand over a lot of its territory to the league as punishment and repayments to other countries it had taken from previously. Germany lost about 10% of its land. They believed this was unfair, as in the 14 points that the countries were supposed to be following one of the points states that all countries all people have a right to self-determination.
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On July 23rd they sent a document to the Serbian government demanding extreme compensation for the assassination of the Archduke which was rejected. The Serbians hoped they would receive support and protection from Russia. On 28th July when Austria and Hungary did declare war on Serbia the Russians did step in and help the Serbians defend themselves. On August 1st Germany declared war on Russia and two days later on France. The French had expected the Germans to attack them via the franco-german boarder but they tricked France by launching an invasion on Belgium and Luxembourg and then into France.
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With the addition of America, it did nothing but make Britain's economical system stronger. They could get certain materials from the colonies for a cheaper price and not have to buy those products from other countries. Britain began noticing that the colonies were trading goods with other countries and not worrying about Britain. Britain felt like they were losing control of the colonies and wanted the colonists to know that they were still in control. England thought that, "Imperial reorganization would increase the profitability of the colonies and the power of the English government to supervise them "(Brinkley, 61).
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How far do you agree that support for the League of Nations was the main reason why Britain made so few commitments to maintain the peace of Europe in 1920's?
For example in India, the British passed the Rowlatt Acts to try to control protests. The acts attempted to restrict liberties and rights of Indians, but demonstrations against the government increased as a response to the acts. After the Amritsar Massacre of 1919 Indians demanded independence from British rule. In 1920 Ghandi persuaded the Congress to adopt his non violent non co-operation policy; Ghandi transformed Congress to a mass party with millions of followers. Similarly in Ireland the IRA waged a guerrilla war against the British army. All these uprisings meant that if there were problems defending the Empire, it would mean there would be inadequate forces to help defend Europe in a major conflict and maintain peace.
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