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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 24
  • Peer Reviewed essays 4
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent is the oil crisis of 1973 a turning point in postwar economic development?

    5 star(s)

    All these suggest otherwise: either that other events qualify more as a "turning point" than the oil crisis, or that there remained continuity of certain phenomenon in the global economy even after the event, implying that it failed to become a watershed event. Firstly, one reason why the 1973 oil crisis can be regarded as a turning point would be its resulting in a basic change in world geopolitics. For the first time in history, the oil producing countries took over the power of decision-making of global economic matters from the US.

    • Word count: 2301
  2. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent is Rambo: First Blood Part 2 typical of Hollywood main stream cinema's treatment of gender in the 1980's?

    4 star(s)

    Rambo's mission in this film is to go back to Vietnam and see if he can find a camp that he is told has many POW's. If he finds the men, he can only take photographs but he has a problem with this and risks his own life to save them. He is very strong and muscular and is able to defeat the soldiers, Russian and Vietnamese, single handed. Douglas Kellner states that the film; 'Follows the conventions of the Hollywood genre of the "war film", which dramatizes conflicts between the United States and its "enemies" and provides a happy ending that portrays the victory of good over evil.'

    • Word count: 2052
  3. Marked by a teacher

    World War One Sources Question

    3 star(s)

    However, the French had not put up any defences on the French/Belgian border as Belgium was a neutral country and the French would not expect an attack from there. Part of the Schlieffen Plan, therefore, was to attack through Belgium and the Germans hoped that the Belgians would just let them through. However, even if the Belgians did put up a fight it would not matter as they only had a small army that would swiftly be defeated by the German army. In the plan the German army was now in France but what was the best of taking France?

    • Word count: 2153
  4. To what extent was Stalin to blame for the Berlin crisis 1948-9?

    June 23rd, gave Stalin the pretext to blockade West Berlin, as he wasn't prepared to accept the "major geopolitical defeat'' that Zubok and Pleshakov imply would be "particularly damaging''7. Zubok and Pleshakov also focus on the Yalta and Potsdam conferences of 1945 where "4 partite administration of Germany and its capital'' was agreed,7 this agreement conflicted with plans for a separate West German state, Stalin couldn't sit back and let this happen, McCauley and Judt both argue Stalin's purpose in blockading Berlin was to force the West to choose between quitting or abandoning their plans by using Berlin as, in

    • Word count: 2542
  5. The emergence of the Superpowers 1945-1962

    The East wanted to in effect 'break' Germany and take all that they could from her due to the damage and lives that they lost throughout the war. The West on the other hand wanted to help restore Germany and bring her back into the economic and industrial world without making her a threat to the rest of the world in terms of military possessions etc. There was no political power in Germany in the post-war world therefore it was essential that the powers took over and brought back order to the country.

    • Word count: 2536
  6. How was opposition to the Vietnam War portrayed in contemporary literature, film and popular song?

    They successfully manage to ridicule the US involvement in Vietnam with their track "Beach Party Vietnam". The song is immediate in its use of mockery, using American symbolism to poke fun at the personal relationship that one man has with his country when he gets "a letter from his Uncle Sam", and then satirises the dire mission that he is about to embark on; he does not receive a call to war, and is instead "invited to a beach party, Vietnam".

    • Word count: 2400
  7. Assess the view that the US Policy of Marshall Aid was motivated mainly by the altruistic desire to help the economic recovery of Europe.

    Balfour, McCauley and Gaddis fail to acknowledge altruism in their arguments, supporting Judt's dismissal. However Europe was devastated following the war and Marshall Aid had reduced the problem, so altruism was not completely absent. America lacked any altruistic desire to help Russia. Fear of Soviet domination and the spread of communism was key to the introduction of aid in the first place, this is argued in each interpretation, adding credibility to each view. Gaddis argues the ''immediate psychological benefits'' produced by economic assistance would halt the spread of communism. However in contrast to Gaddis, Judt draws focus to ''productivity missions funded by the Marshall Plan'' in his interpretation, which brought ''thousands of managers, technicians and trade unionists'' the U.S to study "the American way of business''.

    • Word count: 2142
  8. Why was it Stalin that won the leadership struggle by 1928 in the USSR?

    I therefore propose to our comrades to consider a means of removing Stalin from this post and appointing someone else...' Soon after Lenin's health completely deteriorated and he died on 21st January, 1924. The funeral was to be held on the 27th. Stalin had contacted Trotsky and let him know false details; he told him that the funeral was to be held on the 26th and that Trotsky would not reach on time as he was in Southern Russia - Trotsky agreed and didn't turn up to the funeral, resulting in him being seen as a 'traitor' of Lenin, while Stalin appeared as a Lenin's 'disciple'.

    • Word count: 2228
  9. Considering the changes in warfare 1845-1991 how far can Blitzkrieg be considered a turning point?

    As powerful weaponry became more readily available and easier to posses, succeeding in attacks became much harder, Blitzkrieg provided a solution to these indecisive a strung out wars and it was wholly welcomed. Static and defensive warfare had been apparent in battles for a considerable amount of time and was believed to be the only way to fight for an extended period of time. There are several battles to exemplify this including The American Civil war, The Crimean war and infamously world war one, the turning point for this tactic.

    • Word count: 2125
  10. Disreli and Gladstone

    This is because the majority of the population wouldn't be as educated and expertise such as our representatives who have the qualifications and the history knowledge about politics. This can be highly dangerous as the population would panic and be dependent on the influence of biased sources of information from the media and etc. therefore decisions would be wrongly made as judgements are declared without considering the significant details behind the issue. Consequently many would agree that issues should be handed to the representative government to create justified decisions on behalf of their professionalism.

    • Word count: 2000
  11. The Eighties

    Inspired by the English band, Sex Pistols, punk fashion was loud, aggressive and designed to shock. Tight black jeans, T-shirts held together with safety pins and heavy Doc Martens boots topped off with studded belts, spiked collars and piercings. Music Australian music developed its own distinct rock sound in the 1980s. Bands like Men at Work and INXS achieved international success, receiving Grammy nominations, MTV music awards and top ten hits in Britain and the United States. Australian soap-star actress Kylie Minogue launched her music career with a remake of the 1960s hit Locomotion. Minogue would later go on to achieve worldwide stardom, especially in Britain and Europe.

    • Word count: 2991
  12. Why did Stalin Emerge as Leader of Russia by 1929?

    As for who would replace Lenin, there were many different potential candidates. In this situation, it was not necessarily an advantage to be an obvious candidate. The majority of the people of the USSR did not want an autocracy. It was commonly believed that collective leadership would be an easier way to manage the country. There were two main candidates. One, very obvious candidate was Leon Trotsky. Trotsky had been close to Lenin on a personal level. He was an influential and well developed Marxist theorist, having been outstanding at school and university.

    • Word count: 2095
  13. How important was Stalins Leadership in relation to other factors, in accounting for the soviet victory in the war against Germany?

    Therefore they created a sense of terror that deterred any resistance against Stalin and the regime from building up effectively as well as maintaining discipline and security within the army. This was obviously a crucial factor in Soviet success, without this the Red Army would not have fought effectively. Although the NKVD were very effective throughout the war and must certainly be credited in the Soviet success, Stalin was in overall control of the body, and therefore could also claim some of this as his own.

    • Word count: 2033
  14. "America went to war over Vietnam in 1965 in order to uphold her credibility as a Great Power" How far do you agree with this judgement?

    Of course some strategies such as rolling thunder were carried through but these failed and such failures were another sign that America would be forced to go to war against Vietnam. There is some merit in the statement since upholding her credibility as a great power was part of the reason why America went to war. America had to be seen by her allies but even more so by the communists as a serious force to reckon with being strong, commanding and dominant in the world.

    • Word count: 2262
  15. How far do you think Bloody Sunday was a turning point in the course of the troubles of Northern Ireland?

    The result of the shootings ended with 13 marchers, all apparently unarmed, being killed. Many historians argue that Bloody Sunday should be seen as a turning point in the course of troubles of Northern Ireland because of the conflict and violence it caused between the British and objectors of the march. However it can also be argued that Bloody Sunday was not a turning point down to the fact that something similar to it was more likely to happen sooner or later anyway because there was no stability or order within Northern Ireland. Also the amount of violence and conflict was growing in Northern Ireland already and Bloody Sunday simply added to it.

    • Word count: 2778
  16. World War I: Could it have been avoided?

    These new alliances contributed greatly to the First World War because it enabled countries with the minimal means to engage in a world war. The First World War could have been prevented, but European countries witnessed the creation of a system of alliances, nationalism, militarism and imperialism, which had an impact on the outbreak of war in 1914. Though the First World War occurred due to several different factors, the most significant factor was the creation of an intricate system of alliances between countries in Europe.

    • Word count: 2411
  17. Government efforts in Southeast Asia to create harmonious multicultural societies ultimately proved futile. How far do you agree?

    One could say that these policies failed largely because of the many separatist movements and divides across societies in the various Southeast Asian nations. In Myanmar, initially known as Burma, the government tried to achieve harmonious relations through various means, most of which failed. Initially, under Aung San and U Nu, policies implanted reflected the idea of "Unity in Diversity". Some signs of this include the use of the local vernacular to educate the young in rural areas, the celebration of state holidays according to local customs, and the rotation of the Office of President among minority representative.

    • Word count: 2386
  18. US Policy towards Vietnam 1960-73

    For a time the governments of South Vietnam and the United States had been concerned about the influence of the National Liberation Front on Vietnamese peasants. In an attempt to prevent this they transported peasants into new villages in areas under the control of the South Vietnamese Army. A fence was built around the village and these were then patrolled by armed guards. This strategy provided no relief and some observers' claim that it actually increased the number of peasants joining the NLF.

    • Word count: 2806
  19. The Fall of Classical Greece

    By 431 BCE both sides were prepared to go to war, and both believed victory would be quick. The war lasted twenty-seven years. It began with Spartan raids on Attica's countryside in the summer of 431 BCE. Soldiers attempted to burn olive trees and grape vines, the mainstay of Athens economy4. They hoped the ruined crops would force Athens to sue for peace or face the deadly Spartan hoplites in battle. Spartan soldiers were fabled; the rest of Greece knew that they would lose any land battles against Sparta5. But Athens refused to bow to Sparta. Pericles, a powerful Athenian statesman, believed he had a winning plan.

    • Word count: 2670
  20. The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 is one of the most significant dates in the history of Europe." How far do you agree with this statement?

    By the time of the Bolshevik, or October revolution, (by the western calendar this occurred on November sixth), there was a provisional government in place, set up by the Duma, who were not managing the war to any great effect, and thus the overthrow by Lenin and his comrades sought to end the war, with the promises of "Peace, Land and Bread"2 the Bolshevik party came to power and negotiated themselves out of the war through the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk which led to an armistice on December fifth.

    • Word count: 2341
  21. The role of partisan politics in the spread of McCarthyism

    The beginning of the Cold War and the fear of Communism prompted the introduction of the House Committee of Un-American Activities (HCUA) in 1938, a committee of Congress set up to investigate people suspected of unpatriotic behavior. 2 It also propelled the passing of the Smith Act under the Franklin D. Roosevelt administration in 1940, which made it illegal for anyone in the United States to advocate, abet, or teach the desirability of overthrowing the government. 3 Despite these institutions, however, Communist allegations began to increase.

    • Word count: 2739
  22. atomic bomb

    The American fleet was based at Pearl Harbour and 2000 Americans were savagely butchered. This not only humiliated them but also led to the US being thrust into a barbaric war full of bloodshed and animosity. The Japanese were not following the Geneva Convention in regards to treatment of prisoners of war. This document says that prisoners are not to be put through torture of physical or psychological nature. The Japanese refused to comply with this and would decapitate American prisoners, shove bamboo shoots under their fingernails and various other horrific acts as means of torture.

    • Word count: 2195
  23. Iraq-Undemocratic and Turbulent Iraq-Undemocratic and Turbulent

    By the seventh century AD, the Arab Muslims had emerged as a ruling force and the Abbasid dynasty. From the 12th to the 16th century the land now know as Iraq was ruled either by the Safavid Empire based in Iran, or the Ottoman Empire based in Turkey, depending on who won the numerous conflicts.3 The Safavids were the first the first to declare Shia Islam the official religion of Iran, and their interest in Iraq lay in the Shia holy places in central Iraq in cities of Karbala and Najaf, and also the fact that Baghdad held significant symbolic value as the seat of the ancient Abbasid Empire.4 The Ottoman Empire on the other hand was afraid

    • Word count: 2647
  24. Free essay

    Why did the USA become involved in Vietnam in the 1950's and 1960's

    America could not let this happen as they were opposed to communism in all forms, and feared it could be growing. This is the main reason why Vietnam received American intervention, because of their fear of the "Domino Theory". The Domino Theory (first revealed by President Eisenhower) was the idea that if a nation became communist, then other surrounding countries would follow thus starting off a chain reaction. The "Domino Theory" can be used to justify America's intervention in Vietnam, as it could imply that all of Indochina would fall to this (Indochina- the name given to the French colonies: Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam).

    • Word count: 2248
  25. In 1945, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Why did the Americans decide to carry out these attacks? Explain your answer.

    The first reason I will analyse, is that the Americans wanted revenge for the attacks on Pearl Harbour. In 1940 Japan, which was already fighting a war with China, declared its support for Germany. This caused the Americans to stop sending war supplies to Japan. This angered the Japanese government, who planned the attack on Pearl Harbour. The attack took the Americans completely off guard; there had been no declaration of war. The American government resented the fact that many men had been killed and that they were not given a chance to fight.

    • Word count: 2366

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Analyse the Reasons for Bolivar's Failure to Unite the Countries He Liberated

    "In conclusion, one realises that there were a varying number of factors that contributed to Bolivar's failure to unite the Latin American States. These reasons however branch off of two specific factors. Firstly, Bolivar refused to accept the states' newfound nationalism as a strong and important factor, to understand the differences among the states. This showed in the elites' unwillingness to accept Bolivar's grand plans for their independent nations. Secondly, Bolivar, against his earlier judgement attempted to manage a republic over too vast a geographical area. As he could not be everywhere at once, his large republic became increasingly difficult to maintain. Eventually this led to individuals acting freely in his absence. Though Bolivar was quite a humble gentleman, he allowed those around him to persuade him that his popularity as 'liberator' would allow him to be successful in his plans. 1 Belaunde, Victor A. Bolivar and the Political Thought of the Spanish American Revolution, 1967."

  • The First World War was the result of a badly mismanaged Balkan crisis in the summer of 1914 rather than the product of long standing rivalries between the great powers" Assess the truth of this opinion

    "In conclusion, I think that the immediate cause of the outbreak of war was definitely the July crisis in the summer of 1914. However the crucial decisions made by the leading figure were in fact influenced by the rise in international tension from about 1905 which was partly generated by the German policy of Weltpolitik. It's obvious to say that between 1905 and 1913 no-one is authority actually wanted a war and Britain in the actual crisis of the summer of 1914 was neither planning a war nor even sure about what to do in the event of one whereas the Germans as early as 8th July 1912 had discussions about a possible war. The outbreak of war was not a result of a badly mismanaged Balkan crisis in the summer of 1914, it was the final straw of long-standing rivalries."

  • Geoffroy d'AspremontForeign Policy II - Dr Ann Hughes "Discuss the importance of location in states' foreign policy behaviour and assess how technological change has affected the significance of location."

    "In conclusion, technological advances have only slightly affected the importance of location in the foreign policy behaviour. It permits to strong states to diminish, to some extent, the disadvantages of their locations. As for weak states, they try to take advantage of their locations to fill their lack of technology. In spite of his modern army, the Soviet army was unable to destroy the resistance in the Mountainous Afghanistan. America can invade Iraq and Afghanistan with its advanced weapons but has neither shattered the Iraqis' resistance nor captured Bin-Laden."

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