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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 24
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Explain why America became increasingly involved in the affairs of Vietnam

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    The war between France and the Vietminh dragged on for eight years and the Vietminh used the guerrilla tactics against the French. The guerrilla tactics were very effective, as the terrain was suitable. The Vietminh would hide in the thick jungle and sniper off the French soldiers. The Vietminh eventually defeated the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954. Britain, France, China the Soviet Union, the United States, and Vietnam had already arranged to meet in May 1954 in Geneva, Switzerland.

    • Word count: 4584
  2. UNIT 6: PAPER 6b: THE SOVIET UNION AFTER LENIN

    The body was preserved and put on display in Red Square. The Party set up an Immortalization Commission to preserve Lenin's memory. * Each city soon had a statue of Lenin. Workers were exhorted to join the Party in the so-called 'Lenin Enrolment.' Membership of the Party nearly doubled. Petrograd was renamed Leningrad. * Whoever was to succeed Lenin would need to be seen as a close follower of his ideas and policies What issues divided leading Bolsheviks? Relations with the rest of the world * Some Communists, like Trotsky believed in 'Permanent Revolution'.

    • Word count: 7549
  3. To What Extent Have The Attempts For A Palestinian State Been Blocked By The Actions of Israel And The United States of America ?

    One of the main policies that have been extremely detrimental in maintaining the sovereignty of the Palestinian lands, and making any future Palestinian state look increasingly bleak is the Israeli settlements within the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. What these settlements constitute are small communities within the two enclaves Israel captured in the Six-Day war, and transporting their citizens to live within these heavily fortified and protected communities built upon what was the Arab State. What makes these settlements so destructive to the Palestinians lives, is the fact that each settlement is connected by web of protected roads, only

    • Word count: 4603
  4. How important were developments in Eastern Europe to the collapse of the Soviet Union?

    Also, the USSR had completely withdrawn all its troops from Afghanistan, a center of Cold War tensions. Domestically, however, Gorbachev was losing public support - it was at an all time low of 21%. The Soviet Union too faced pent-up economic problems in the implementation of perestroika as glasnost swept the federation. A year after the NATO declaration in 1990, the Soviet Union, United States, and almost all other European nations signed the Charter of Paris. The Soviet Union and the United States joined forces militarily during the Gulf War, signifying a new era of Soviet Union - United States relations.

    • Word count: 3040
  5. What were the main issues relating to Germany that caused Cold War tension?

    also causes these German issues to become more important and immediate. This then provokes a reaction on both the East and the West, which leads back to the increased Cold War tensions. This essay will focus mainly on economic issues in Germany. German economic issues formed a major part of the increasing Cold War tensions. This was as the economic state of Germany affected the rest of Europe both ideologically and economically, as well as the Allies' domestic economies. One of the issues that caused Soviet dissatisfaction with the West was in their disagreement on the economic recovery speed of Germany in terms of deindustrialisation.

    • Word count: 3055
  6. To what extent was Hitler solely responsible for the Holocaust

    Hitler seemingly blamed Jews for every negative aspect in his life, even blaming them for his failure to get into the Vienna art academy, thus showing that Hitler was 'gripped by a pathological hatred for Jews'. 1 Hitler also began to associate the Jews with certain forms of Bolshevism and Socialism, where he merged his hatred of the Jews with his own anti-Marxism. He even went as far to blame the Jews for Germany's military defeat in World War I, claiming that the Jews were the culprits of Imperial Germany's downfall.

    • Word count: 3153
  7. Free essay

    To what extent are Walter Scott(TM)s novels a product of the Scottish Enlightenment? Discuss with reference to his novel Waverley

    Scott seeks by this method - and here he abides by a key tenet of Enlightenment philosophy - to determine how a society's values are produced and changed by the particular cultural, economic and religious circumstances in which they exist. Thus, by observing a continuation of traditional values over the sixty year period examined, Scott confirms Hutcheson's seminal Enlightenment motif that 'virtue' conforms to nature and is not, as Hume and De Mandeville posited, simply conformity to what men find 'pleasurable' (Bruce, 2002: p.101).

    • Word count: 3673
  8. Gorbachev(TM)s reforms and policies, which were intended originally to strengthen the Soviet system, eventually killed it. How far do you agree with this statement?

    But the economic reforms failed to produce the desired results fast enough. Gorbachev tried to deal with all economic problems at one go and found that the machinery of government simply could not cope with so many changes quickly. Instead of streamlining the system, Gorbachev's decentralization caused new production bottlenecks. This situation led to an increase in wages for employees and the government printed more money which led to inflation - thus even those who received higher wages could not purchase the basic necessities which were in short supply.

    • Word count: 3694
  9. Free essay

    Did America drop the bomb in revenge, to prevent the USSR spreading, so Truman could prove he was a big man, so half a million US soldiers would be saved or so the price of the Manhattan project would be justified?

    This is further emphasised by Takaki's quotes from the Manhattan Project director "Russia was our enemy, and the project was conducted on that basis". However, J. Samuel Walker clearly disagrees, "As an added incentive, using the bomb might provide diplomatic benefits". He downgrades the role of the USSR as simply an additional, not particularly important "bonus"; "Truman's foremost consideration in using the bomb immediately was not used to frustrate Soviet ambitions in Asia or to show off the bomb". However, both these historians seem to ignore USSR-USA relations before Potsdam, which had been contentious at best.

    • Word count: 3467
  10. Free essay

    Do you consider military intervention in Africa as successful? Focus on the policies in Africa of the UN.

    This essay will define UN military intervention as including direct and indirect military intervention. Direct military intervention is defined as the sending of troops on a unilateral (by one state) or multilateral level (within an ad hoc coalition, a regional organisation such as the EU or NATO, or an international organisation such as the UN). Indirect military intervention is the funding and military support of international troops such as UN troops, regional troops such as ECOWAS and the AU. Military intervention in Africa has taken two forms, that of peacekeeping and that of peace enforcement.

    • Word count: 3953
  11. The Foreign Policy of the Lone Superpower

    According to Edwards, Wattenberg and Lineberry, most of the Americans see that "democracy has little to do with the international relations of the United States. Because domestic issues are closer to their daily lives and easier to understand, Americans are usually more interested in domestic policy than in foreign policy."2 This carries the undertones of isolationism, a foreign policy and an ideal that the United States government and the people employed going back to its foundation by George Washington3 up to the onset of the First World War which ended when they were forced to join the war when the

    • Word count: 4303
  12. To what extent was the Civil War the main factor in the Bolshevik

    Whereas the monarchists wanted the Tsarist regime to return and not any other alternative; thus disabling them to unite with the interventionists effectively as they tried to pursue with their figurehead to come back to power. The Bolsheviks realised that the Whites did pose little but some threat to their regime and needed to remove this via fighting and assassinations; most notably on Tsar Nicholas II's family which proved highly effective in suppressing the Whites. "The execution of the Tsar's family was needed not only to frighten, horrify and instil a sense of hopelessness in the enemy"1.

    • Word count: 3858
  13. Why did hitler bomb british cities?

    This resulted in a large amount of Europe being taken very quickly with these tactics. But the beginning of the Second World War was only signalled when Hitler decided to invade Poland, as Poland was allied with both France and Britain. The rest of Europe soon fell to the Germans, and now only two countries remained to be taken; Britain and Russia. Hitler chose Britain, as he had already made an agreement with Russia that stated that they would not attack each other.

    • Word count: 6651
  14. Does Realism as a statist Ideology exist today?

    Liberalism provides a counter argument and differing perspective to international relations and a result a challenge to the realist school of thought. The evolvement of global organizations such as the European Union and the United Nations, that govern and encourage the interconnectedness between states, illustrates this point that international politics is becoming largely intertwined, which has resulted in strong state borders and boundaries being broken down. These two institutions give rise to increased international relations, and furthermore play a prominent role in the affiliation between these states.

    • Word count: 3338
  15. Vietnam - Why did the USA withdraw it's troops in 1973?

    They often attacked small enemy patrols, usually at night, thus making the American's suffer a terrible ordeal. The Vietcong had booby traps, sharpened bamboo staves, mines, grenades, and artillery shells, which were all waiting to be stepped on and set off. The guerrilla's had a much better chance of winning, as they knew the American's would give in before they did. The guerrilla's realised that the longer the war lasted, the greater their chances of victory. The American's had no chance of winning, as they had never fought this type of war before, as there was no frontline.

    • Word count: 3193
  16. Describe the military tactics and weapons used by both the USA and the Vietcong forces in Vietnam

    They also gave land left from the Indochina war back to the peasants. This helped the VC a lot because it meant new recruits for them (The VC Guerillas dressed mainly in black pajamas, looking like peasants; they were farmers by day and Guerillas by night). In recruiting, the VC were open to women fighters as well as men. This meant that the American male soldiers were affected by the morality of killing a woman, it wasn't morally right; this made them think twice and damaged morale by leaving the thought of killing a woman on their conscience-they became physicologically unhealthy).

    • Word count: 3153
  17. To what extent were germany to blame for the outbreak of ww1

    The German war council of 1912 is an indicator in which to suggest that Germany was planning a war. Within the council military advises had gathered to discuss the Balkan crisis. The Kaiser discussed a pre - emptive war, discussing the actions that Germany would take in the event of a war declaration. With regards to alliances in 1890 alliances had already began to emerge, with Germany, Austria Hungary and Italy emerging in the military alliance. France and Russia however were part of the Triple Entente.

    • Word count: 3345
  18. How far was the USSR responsible for the outbreak of the Cold War?

    The ideological differences are crucial as well, for they are the foundation to the reasons why the USA and USSR could not agree upon each other's policies. Prior to the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Red Army had already liberated Poland from the Nazis but at the expense of the London Poles, thus of democracy. After staging the crushing of the London Poles by the Nazis, Stalin had a dominant position at the time of the conferences, and thus was able to make some nonnegotiable claims such as that the Russians were to keep territory from the eastern portion of Poland and Poland was to compensate for that by extending its Western borders, thus forcing out millions of Germans.

    • Word count: 4209
  19. How Useful are Sources A-C to explain why the United States became involved in the war in Vietnam?

    The facts tell us how useful the source is even if the source is telling us something wrong it can still give us additional useful information. The reasons that the United States became involved in Vietnam can be split into two groups these are long term reasons and short term reasons. The long term reason for the United States becoming involved in the war in Vietnam was because of Communism. The United States did not want communism. Communism was spreading and was mostly becoming popular with poor countries.

    • Word count: 4541
  20. Coursework on discussing whether television was an important reason why the United States lost the war in Vietnam using sources D to K (provided by centre)

    The opposition of the war included the Burning of Draft cards, students becoming involved in anti-war demonstrations, Black civil rights leaders demonstrating. Another factor which caused the US to leave Vietnam was the initial cost of the war which was 20 billion a year this interfered with the great society. In this essay I will see if there is enough evidence in Sources D to K to support the interpretation that colour television was an important reason to why the United States lost the war in Vietnam.

    • Word count: 4270
  21. Why Did the United States of America Become Involved In Vietnam?

    necessary measures to prevent further aggression peace and security", this meant that he could take the USA to a full scale war. Source A: Source A shows and tells us that this extract is a speech, from April 1965.The speech was given by president Johnson, this source tells us that the speech is from a primary source as this was spoken from the president at that specific era, which was in 1965. President Johnson produced the speech, with maybe his generals too, Johnson wrote this source, he also delivered this speech at the auditorium in Shriver hall at 9pm, on the 7th of April (1965), at the university.

    • Word count: 3409
  22. Hiroshima Coursework This piece of coursework will concentrate on three questions, all source based.

    This is due to the fact that he was actually there and he was a civilian. His motives would be to make sure that America is seen as the 'bad' and 'evil' country that has killed thousands of innocent civilians. Also, the text seems to be a little farfetched. For example, 'In their terror of dying they clawed their way, over one another, their eyes hanging from their sockets...' The reader may think that this is trying to influence them by describing the event as worse as possible. You have to take into consideration the narrators motive.

    • Word count: 4056
  23. Explain why the United States withdrew its forces from Vietnam in 1973

    The battle took place at the town of �i�n Bi�n Phu in north-western Vietnam, along the country's border with Laos. The French reinforced their garrison at �i�n Bi�n Phu in November 1953 to prevent the Vietminh from gaining control of northern Laos and the middle and lower Mekong River Valley. The Vietminh, led by General Vo Nguyen Giap, began besieging the French at �i�n Bi�n Phu on March 13, 1954. After months of fighting with the French forces, the base was overrun by the Vietminh on May 7, 1954.

    • Word count: 3371
  24. Why did Britain become involved in a European War in 1914?

    A breach in the guarantee of Belgium neutrality however, was only the final spark triggering Britain's intervention. A full insight into Britain's entrance of the war can be found in an examination of the long established antagonism between Anglo-German relations that in the case of the final spark; were enough to ignite war. Despite signs of improved Anglo-German relations in the period of 1912 to 1914, there were enough relevant contributory factors causing a significant deterioration outweighing the build up of trust between the two states.

    • Word count: 3195
  25. THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

    SOURCE A President Wilson's plan for a League of Nations had much support. Many people in Europe were sick of war and death. Wilson seemed to offer a peaceful future where countries would work together instead of fighting each other. Everywhere Wilson went large crowds who cheered him as a hero met him. Q.1 According to SOURCE A why was President Wilson popular with many people in Europe in 1919? Give two reasons for your answer. SOURCE B is from a school history book. SOURCE B The League was set up to prevent wars breaking out.

    • Word count: 3200

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Analyse the Reasons for Bolivar's Failure to Unite the Countries He Liberated

    "In conclusion, one realises that there were a varying number of factors that contributed to Bolivar's failure to unite the Latin American States. These reasons however branch off of two specific factors. Firstly, Bolivar refused to accept the states' newfound nationalism as a strong and important factor, to understand the differences among the states. This showed in the elites' unwillingness to accept Bolivar's grand plans for their independent nations. Secondly, Bolivar, against his earlier judgement attempted to manage a republic over too vast a geographical area. As he could not be everywhere at once, his large republic became increasingly difficult to maintain. Eventually this led to individuals acting freely in his absence. Though Bolivar was quite a humble gentleman, he allowed those around him to persuade him that his popularity as 'liberator' would allow him to be successful in his plans. 1 Belaunde, Victor A. Bolivar and the Political Thought of the Spanish American Revolution, 1967."

  • The First World War was the result of a badly mismanaged Balkan crisis in the summer of 1914 rather than the product of long standing rivalries between the great powers" Assess the truth of this opinion

    "In conclusion, I think that the immediate cause of the outbreak of war was definitely the July crisis in the summer of 1914. However the crucial decisions made by the leading figure were in fact influenced by the rise in international tension from about 1905 which was partly generated by the German policy of Weltpolitik. It's obvious to say that between 1905 and 1913 no-one is authority actually wanted a war and Britain in the actual crisis of the summer of 1914 was neither planning a war nor even sure about what to do in the event of one whereas the Germans as early as 8th July 1912 had discussions about a possible war. The outbreak of war was not a result of a badly mismanaged Balkan crisis in the summer of 1914, it was the final straw of long-standing rivalries."

  • Geoffroy d'AspremontForeign Policy II - Dr Ann Hughes "Discuss the importance of location in states' foreign policy behaviour and assess how technological change has affected the significance of location."

    "In conclusion, technological advances have only slightly affected the importance of location in the foreign policy behaviour. It permits to strong states to diminish, to some extent, the disadvantages of their locations. As for weak states, they try to take advantage of their locations to fill their lack of technology. In spite of his modern army, the Soviet army was unable to destroy the resistance in the Mountainous Afghanistan. America can invade Iraq and Afghanistan with its advanced weapons but has neither shattered the Iraqis' resistance nor captured Bin-Laden."

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