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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991
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USA?s goal was to destroy communism, where as the Vietnamese people?s plight was to gain freedom from another invader. America did not understand this and therefore thought that technology and bombs would make North Vietnam give up communism. Operation rolling thunder was instituted in 1965. This included bombing North Vietnam to stop support aid coming to the viet cong in the south. The South was experiencing a civil war against its own communist supporters, the Viet Cong. Despite the usage of millions of tons of bombs, Usa did not gain victory because they were bombing a jungle dwelling nation, which did not only a few supply lines but complicated jungle trails and tunnel networks.
- Word count: 759
How successful was the Federal Republic of Germany in controlling political extremism between 1949 and 1989?
The Socialist Reich Party had views similar to those of the Nazis. They were banned from the parliament; this was allowed under the basic law when democracy was potentially under threat. The KPD organised communist demonstrations in cities. The FRG used the basic law to ban the KPD also, claiming it was an un-constitutional party. Two organisations set up in the 1950?s to battle political extremism were the BFV and BND. The BFV, set up in 1950, investigated people who they suspected to be working against the basic law within the country.
- Word count: 632
Which had the greater impact on preventing the reunification of Germany, the FRGs membership of NATO or East German membership of the Warsaw Pact?
In 1949, the Americans, British, and French joined their zones of occupation in West Germany to set up another country, the Federal Republic of Germany. The Soviets reacted by setting up the German Democratic Republic in East Germany. On May 5, 1955, the American, French, and British constrains formally finished their military control of West Germany, which turned into an autonomous nation. After four days, West Germany was made an individual from NATO. For U.S. policymakers, this was a vital stride in the safeguard of Western Europe.
- Word count: 677
Which had the greater impact on preventing the four occupying powers from agreeing on German unity, the amalgamation of the SPD and KPD in April 1946 or disagreement over German reparations?
This was minor because it didn?t have a strong impact on German unity. The Allies agreed that Germany should never again have the opportunity to destroy European peace as it had in the two world wars. A primary aim of the Allies was to prevent the resurgence of a powerful and aggressive Germany. As a first step toward demilitarizing, degasifying, and democratizing Germany, the Allies established an international military tribunal in August 1945 to jointly try individuals considered responsible for the outbreak of the war and for crimes committed by the Hitler regime.
- Word count: 601
'The Wartime "Grand Alliance" between Britain, the USA and the USSR was undermined by mutual suspicion.' Explain why you agree or disagree with this view.
The Grand Alliance had met at three conferences; Tehran in 1943, and Yalta and Potsdam in 1945. Disagreements emerged over Germany, Poland and Eastern Europe economic reconstruction and nuclear weapons ? the arms race had emerged between the USSR and USA. By 1946, the Grand Alliance had completely broken down due to problems not being resolved. The Atlantic Charter was eight principles policy between the Allies. The principles had defined the Allies goals for the post-war world and it also presented the unity between the USA, Britain and the USSR. However, there was wartime disagreement between the Grand Alliance.
- Word count: 1078
The Truman Doctrine of 1947 adopted the policy of containment and sought to keep the USSR within its existing boundaries and undermine Soviet influence whenever possible. Truman promised US support for ?free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation? by outside pressures?. The policy acted as a foundation for greater involvement because the fears of communism potentially overriding countries who favoured capitalism where highly disfavoured among the US. The re-evaluation of America?s Cold War diplomacy strategy through the NSC-68 report shaped US foreign policy in the Cold War for 20 years.
- Word count: 1306
This was a system which Dealt with things sensibly and realistically in a way which is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations unlike Mao whom was obsessed with ideology, this is where a system of ideas and ideals (Maoism), especially one which forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy introduced by ministers. Furthermore Mao was a key figure because when he saw the new ministers as a threat as they succeeded in ending the famine, growing increasingly popular within the party unlike Mao whom actually started the catastrophic famine and failed to meet industrial targets during the Great leap forward.
- Word count: 2009
1958 ? Khrushchev emerges as head of Soviet State September 1959 ? Hopes for the possibility of peaceful coexistence raised by the success of a second summit held at Camp David. May 1960 ? U2 Spy Plane Incident. Soviet walkout at the third summit in Paris ended both the summit and hopes for ?peaceful coexistence? 1961 ? Berlin Crisis. Marked the return of the Cold War What changes took place in superpower relations between 1948-1955 Prior to 1950 the Cold War had developed due to the circumstances arising from the post-war world and had been focused on Europe.
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In the years 195360, President Eisenhowers cold war diplomacy was based on confrontation rather than coexistence. How far do you agree with this view?
Eisenhower selected the stringently anti-communist John Foster Dulles as his secretary of state who saw confrontation between east and west as a struggle between good and evil. Dulles had a strong influence on Eisenhower?s foreign policy, advocating the policies of ?roll back? and ?massive retaliation?. In conjunction with Eisenhower?s ?Domino Theory? articulated in 1954 and the Eisenhower doctrine of 1957 this would see the US deter any perceived Soviet aggression with the potentially catastrophic use of nuclear ?brinkmanship? whilst simultaneously attempting to push back the ?spread? of communism to Russia.
- Word count: 1021
How far do you agree that the developmemt of the Cold War between the USA and the Soviet Union was primarly due to traditional great power rivalries?
Following the conclusion of World War Two, the Soviet Union had 60 army divisions stationed in Eastern Europe, these divisions played an important role in imposing Soviet controlled Communist regimes in the region: Romania in 1946, Poland and Bulgaria in 1947 and Czechoslovakia in 1948. These takeovers had the joint purpose of spreading Russian influence in to the region, and creating a ?buffer-zone? to defend against invasion on her Western border. In addition, the USSR threatened Allied access to the world?s sea routes in the Turkish Dardanelles and possibly co-ordinated Communist insurgency in the British supported Greece.
- Word count: 1220