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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991
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Instead, Canada held that illegal acts of international aggression must be opposed under a United Nations resolution.Although Canada did not directly get involved in the Vietnam War, it was still impacted economically, socially and militarily. The Vietnam War impacted Canada economically, because of war materials, produced in Canada, that were sold to the United States. Canada had supplied 2.5 billion dollars of war materials to the United States and an additional 10 billion dollars in food, beverages, berets and boots for the troops was exported to the US, as well as nickel, copper, lead, and oil for shell casings, wiring, plate armour and military transport3.
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To what extent was the nuclear arms race a more stabilising factor in the cold war from 1949 to 1963?
On the 6th of August 1949, the USSR tested the first atomic bomb in the north of what would be now Russia. This was to start a fury of nuclear testing between the nations. However the first 'testing' was actually in 1945 when the United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, killing thousands of civilians. This immediately threatened not only Japan, the enemy of the United States during WW2 but also close neighbour, the USSR. Stalin saw the highly powerful bombs as force of power over the world.
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How far do you agree with the view that the development of the Cold War in the Period 1945-1950 was the result of Stalins foreign policy?
However, there is much debate into which leader or country was to take the majority of the blame for developing the cold war. Some historians say that Stalin was the main cause of the cold war as he extended his policy of isolationism into defending his socialist state by taking over the neighbouring war torn states, this had then alerted the capitalist west and There is a popular belief that Stalin caused the Cold War through his polices. Probably the biggest cause of conflict between the West and East was what Stalin did to the Eastern Bloc.
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The Soviet Union was aggressively expansionist and showed little enthusiasm for dtente. How valid is this statement?
This is linked also with the USA's globalism, Truman's Doctrine vilified the USSR among the American people which gave Marshall aid a solid purpose, to save these countries from communist oppression. The Russians were also made an enemy of by Kennan's Long Telegram coupled with Churchill' Iron Curtain speech. The telegram stated that the Russians are 'aggressive expansionists.' Not only does this follow on from my previous point that the USA vilified the Soviets but also the Russians expanded gradually, this disproves a large chunk of the telegram as it cannot be aggressive expansionism if the Russians were expanding gradually and through elections often.
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Placing nuclear weapons in Cuba was a reckless piece of international gambling by Khrushchev that achieved nothing of significance for the USSR. How valid is this view?
This is an incredible risk to put nuclear arms so close to the USA and risk a possibility of nuclear war to impress China, although this obviously wasn't the main reason it still was a factor. The protection of Cuba and its communist revolution was also in the mind of Khrushchev when installing the weapons into Cuba, however a large amount of the worry surrounding the situation could have been lessened if conventional weapons were used instead due to there being a lessened opinion of regular military forces because at the time all of the media and worry was about nuclear arms and the damage a nuclear war could to do everyone on a global scale.
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Vietnam. A series of crises and events helped shape the characteristics of Ho Chi Minh. Many actions were taken by Ho Chi Minh in order to express his identity.
The partaking in battles during Japanese occupation, the first Indochina war also shows Ho Chi Minh's dedication to nationalism. The formation of yet another group, the Vietcong, was another expression of Ho's beliefs in nationalism. One event was when the Chinese ruled Vietnam for close to a thousand years, they introduced Confucianism to Vietnam. This way of life taught obedience, loyalty, and the respect for authority. It also taught that everyone had a duty their families. Ho Chi Minh was born a peasant and as his father was a nationalist, Ho Chi Minh felt being a nationalist was a duty
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It allowed broadbased coalition governments to rule. However, by 1948, the USSR was in control of half of Europe, the Communists had succeeded in outmaneuvering all other parties in these coalition governments, and one-Party states were set up under Communist control. Leaders of opposition parties were silenced, native Communist leaders were replaced by Soviet ones. Coalition governments were replaced by 'Peoples' Democracies' under tight control from Moscow. Already in the summer of 1948, a challenge to Stalin's domination of the East had emerged from Yugoslavia.
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June 23rd, gave Stalin the pretext to blockade West Berlin, as he wasn't prepared to accept the "major geopolitical defeat'' that Zubok and Pleshakov imply would be "particularly damaging''7. Zubok and Pleshakov also focus on the Yalta and Potsdam conferences of 1945 where "4 partite administration of Germany and its capital'' was agreed,7 this agreement conflicted with plans for a separate West German state, Stalin couldn't sit back and let this happen, McCauley and Judt both argue Stalin's purpose in blockading Berlin was to force the West to choose between quitting or abandoning their plans by using Berlin as, in
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How far do you agree that US support in the years 1945-48 was the most important factor in the creation of an independent state of Israel?
Many western countries wanted to create a homeland for the Jews where they could settle and feel safe. There was particularly strong support in the US where the Jewish population put pressure on the US government. President Truman called on the British government to allow 100,000 Jewish refugees to enter Palestine. But the British refused claiming that it would be unfair to the Arabs and lead to civil war in Palestine.
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The East wanted to in effect 'break' Germany and take all that they could from her due to the damage and lives that they lost throughout the war. The West on the other hand wanted to help restore Germany and bring her back into the economic and industrial world without making her a threat to the rest of the world in terms of military possessions etc. There was no political power in Germany in the post-war world therefore it was essential that the powers took over and brought back order to the country.
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o How did the US respond to events in Cuba? America immediately imposed economic sanctions on Cuba and reduced their imports of Cuban sugar by 95%. This downward spiral in US-Cuban relations continued when Castro seized $1 billion of US assets on Cuba in Oct 1960. Bay of Pigs invasion by the US, planned by Eisenhower and carried out by Kennedy. Plan was to enable 1500 anti-Castro exiles to land on Cuba and carry out military coup to remove him.
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The Korean War represented total defeat for the Truman Doctrine? H. Brogan. How far would you agree with Brogans assessment of the Korean War?
This really isn't direct conflict, but it does show that there were elements of fighting Russia. The American's who were fighting in support of the South Korean's were fighting Russian tactics, just against North Korea instead of Russia. This weakens this point of argument, and can be interpreted as the two superpowers fighting each other, but using other countries as 'chess pieces', if you will. However, as the key aim was not to fight the USSR directly, it was successfully achieved, and H. Brogan is clearly wrong in saying that the Korean War was a total defeat for the Truman Doctrine.
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How far do you agree that Israeli victories in successive Arab-Israeli conflicts in the years 1948-73 were primarily due to divisions amongst Arabs?
The Arab forces were disunited; this was because of a lack of coordination between the different Arab nations. The several nations were pursuing their own separate agendas, rather than merely wanting to fight against Israel together. An example of this was Jordan's Abdullah wanted to gain control of the West Bank, whilst the Egyptians who distrusted Abdullah's motives sought land in the Sinai Peninsula. The Arab states were stung by their defeat against Israel in the First Arab-Israeli War in 1949.
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They successfully manage to ridicule the US involvement in Vietnam with their track "Beach Party Vietnam". The song is immediate in its use of mockery, using American symbolism to poke fun at the personal relationship that one man has with his country when he gets "a letter from his Uncle Sam", and then satirises the dire mission that he is about to embark on; he does not receive a call to war, and is instead "invited to a beach party, Vietnam".
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Assess the view that the US Policy of Marshall Aid was motivated mainly by the altruistic desire to help the economic recovery of Europe.
Balfour, McCauley and Gaddis fail to acknowledge altruism in their arguments, supporting Judt's dismissal. However Europe was devastated following the war and Marshall Aid had reduced the problem, so altruism was not completely absent. America lacked any altruistic desire to help Russia. Fear of Soviet domination and the spread of communism was key to the introduction of aid in the first place, this is argued in each interpretation, adding credibility to each view. Gaddis argues the ''immediate psychological benefits'' produced by economic assistance would halt the spread of communism. However in contrast to Gaddis, Judt draws focus to ''productivity missions funded by the Marshall Plan'' in his interpretation, which brought ''thousands of managers, technicians and trade unionists'' the U.S to study "the American way of business''.
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The Space Race was a product of the Cold War. Two countries were involved, the United States and the Soviet Union
The United States however pursued the Soviet and was also advancing as a nation. There was however speculation on the actual start date because of the launch of a rocket the R-7 Semyorka which was launched six weeks prior that of Sputnik, so the Space Races alternate starting date was really six weeks before the launch of Sputnik (Anissimov, M 2010, para 1). The Military of both countries got involved in the Space Race instantly. To the military strategists the launch of Sputnik caused panic and was confirmation that the Communists had definitely surpassed the Capitalists.
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Trotsky's defeat was a vital part of Stalins rise to power, once he overcame him he had the power within his grasp. Trotsky was feared by all the senior members, he was in charge of the communists army and people were scaried of the fact that he may use it against them. Trotsky's defeat began when he decided not to compete for leadership, his arrogance here let him down. He assumed that because he was so good that they would simply ask him to become leader, he couldn't have been more wrong.
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I therefore propose to our comrades to consider a means of removing Stalin from this post and appointing someone else...' Soon after Lenin's health completely deteriorated and he died on 21st January, 1924. The funeral was to be held on the 27th. Stalin had contacted Trotsky and let him know false details; he told him that the funeral was to be held on the 26th and that Trotsky would not reach on time as he was in Southern Russia - Trotsky agreed and didn't turn up to the funeral, resulting in him being seen as a 'traitor' of Lenin, while Stalin appeared as a Lenin's 'disciple'.
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Another hope of Collectivisation was that it would socialise peasantry; everyone would live communally and work together in a co-operative way; everyone would live in 'Socialist agro-towns'. Socially, it can be said that, Collectivisation was a failure. It provoked much resistance and violent opposition to, and in an attempt to not hand over their crops and livestock, farmers burnt their crops and killed their livestock. Anyone who resisted became labelled a Kulak and under Stalin's 'Dekulakisation', suspected Kulaks were deported to Siberia or sent to labour camps.
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The body was preserved and put on display in Red Square. The Party set up an Immortalization Commission to preserve Lenin's memory. * Each city soon had a statue of Lenin. Workers were exhorted to join the Party in the so-called 'Lenin Enrolment.' Membership of the Party nearly doubled. Petrograd was renamed Leningrad. * Whoever was to succeed Lenin would need to be seen as a close follower of his ideas and policies What issues divided leading Bolsheviks? Relations with the rest of the world * Some Communists, like Trotsky believed in 'Permanent Revolution'.
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As powerful weaponry became more readily available and easier to posses, succeeding in attacks became much harder, Blitzkrieg provided a solution to these indecisive a strung out wars and it was wholly welcomed. Static and defensive warfare had been apparent in battles for a considerable amount of time and was believed to be the only way to fight for an extended period of time. There are several battles to exemplify this including The American Civil war, The Crimean war and infamously world war one, the turning point for this tactic.
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Society was heavily skewed in favour of the peasant population, who had been responsible to the landed gentry until their emancipation in 1861. Some of these illiterate peasants did begin to move out as the country began to industrialise but the number of factory workers in 1914 was still only 2.5 million (under 2% of the population). Nostalgia for a rural past was ever present and this made the government demands of increased industrialisation an even more difficult one to bring in line with the feelings of the population.
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How far do you agree that, for the GDR (East Germany), the results of the building of the Berlin Wall proved to be mainly negative?
A further point is that by the late 1960s unrest in Eastern European countries such as Czechoslovakia meant that the government of the GDR had to end what could have been a beneficial 'New Economic System' and bring back tighter state control showing that from the wall, inhabitants of the GDR had gained nothing. Due to this it could be argued that the building of the Berlin Wall proved to be mainly negative for them. It could also be argued that it was mainly negative because while in the West the wall was covered with political messages in the form of graffiti; in the East the crossing of the boundary was punishable by death.
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Nicholas II ruled from 1894 until his abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw great change to Imperial Russia as it went from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to an economic and military disaster. Under his rule, Russia was defeated in the Russian-Japanese war, which changed the economic situation of the country, going from having great economic growth due to Sergei Witte who was Russian Director of Railway Affair, he oversaw an ambitious program of railway construction which was the building of the Trans-Siberian Railway which saw Russia have significant economic growth to a country to a economic disaster.
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'Kennedy chose to increase American commitment to South Vietnam because he wanted to maintain the USA's Status as a Super-power' Explain why you agree or disagree with this statement.
Both countries had big stockpiles of nuclear arms during Kennedy's administration and anything that would decrease the threat of nuclear war was needed by The United States. But Super-power status comes at a price. A country only remains a super-power so long as it has a substantial military force and it is constantly pumping hundreds of millions of dollars every year into its armed forces and weapons programs. It is alot harder for a country that likes to solve things peacefully or passively to keep hold or super power status, not matter how big or rich that country is.
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