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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991

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  1. Duality in Frankenstein

    The fact is that whatever the monster has, Victor is lacking for example, and the monster has love for everyone and is not prejudiced, Victor only love himself as he makes it clear during the novel and maybe he appreciates Clerval but only because Henry is what he wanted to be in the future. Also and most importantly Victor has something the monster will never have, a name, and not only a simple name he has a very well known and prosper name, the monster will never be known and disappear in oblivion, whilst the Frankenstein name will perjure forever, like he says in the begging of the novel, "I was willing to achieve the fame".

    • Word count: 639
  2. To what extent was the development of the post-Stalinist thaw in superpower relations between 1953 and 1962 the result of Khrushchevs policy of peaceful coexistence?

    Therefore money was diverted from social reform and more productive sectors of the economy in both the US and the USSR. All this meant that both sides were well aware of the new dangers and anxious to explore ways to contain military expenditure. Stalin's death led to a collective leadership and a struggle for power between Beria, Malenkov and Khrushchev. Peaceful Coexistence was developed out of this leadership contest as the contenders were keen to forge new policies towards the west.

    • Word count: 1521
  3. Free essay

    How far do you agree with the view that the development of the cold war in the period 1945-50 was a result of Stalins foreign policy?

    The USA as expressed by George Kennan in his "long telegram": "and they [USSR] have learned to seek security only in patient but deadly struggle for total destruction of rival powers, never in compacts and compromises with it" so we can see how exaggerated was the US view of the soviet will of protection. The US was also starting a bad era, the change of president after the fructuous Yalta conference, in which Truman succeeded the deceased Roosevelt, marked a very heavy change in US foreign policy.

    • Word count: 1525
  4. Free essay

    To what extent does the leadership of Ho Chi Minh explain French failure in Indochina in 1954?

    A US official described Bao Dai's government as 'in no way the servant to the people'. The same US official described Ho Chi Minh as 'a popular hero'. Ho Chi Minh was a Vietnamese Nationalist who was one of the most influential Communist leaders of the 20th century, he led the Vietnamese people to victory to the Japanese, the French and the USA. Ho was seen as patriotic as he cared about the Vietnamese people and fairly gave land, education and health care gaining the hearts of the peasants in Vietnam. For this reason Ho Chi Minh was, to some extent, reason for French failure at Indochina.

    • Word count: 901
  5. Disreli and Gladstone

    This is because the majority of the population wouldn't be as educated and expertise such as our representatives who have the qualifications and the history knowledge about politics. This can be highly dangerous as the population would panic and be dependent on the influence of biased sources of information from the media and etc. therefore decisions would be wrongly made as judgements are declared without considering the significant details behind the issue. Consequently many would agree that issues should be handed to the representative government to create justified decisions on behalf of their professionalism.

    • Word count: 2000
  6. Maos consolidation of power between 1949 and 1953 was entirely dependent on terror and repression.Discuss.

    It was tactics like these that empowered Chinese people, not terrorised them. The PLA too were indoctrinated with Mao's beliefs and therefore due to Mao's cunningness with his delivery of propaganda, many were oblivious. Mao wanted to move faster to allow him to gain a complete dictatorship of China. At first Mao pursued a cautious policy in order to build and maintain a broaden coalition of support. However towards the end of 1950, with external and internal forces threatening China's revolution Mao along with the CCP were therefore allowed to justify more extreme measures.

    • Word count: 1101
  7. The Eighties

    Inspired by the English band, Sex Pistols, punk fashion was loud, aggressive and designed to shock. Tight black jeans, T-shirts held together with safety pins and heavy Doc Martens boots topped off with studded belts, spiked collars and piercings. Music Australian music developed its own distinct rock sound in the 1980s. Bands like Men at Work and INXS achieved international success, receiving Grammy nominations, MTV music awards and top ten hits in Britain and the United States. Australian soap-star actress Kylie Minogue launched her music career with a remake of the 1960s hit Locomotion. Minogue would later go on to achieve worldwide stardom, especially in Britain and Europe.

    • Word count: 2991
  8. Why did Stalin Emerge as Leader of Russia by 1929?

    As for who would replace Lenin, there were many different potential candidates. In this situation, it was not necessarily an advantage to be an obvious candidate. The majority of the people of the USSR did not want an autocracy. It was commonly believed that collective leadership would be an easier way to manage the country. There were two main candidates. One, very obvious candidate was Leon Trotsky. Trotsky had been close to Lenin on a personal level. He was an influential and well developed Marxist theorist, having been outstanding at school and university.

    • Word count: 2095
  9. Neither Stalin, Khrushchev or Brezhnev successfully addressed fundamental economic problems which increasingly dogged the USSR after the Second World War How far do you agree with this statement?

    For example, he addressed the growing complexity of the economy by creating more economic ministries. Further than this at the end of 1947, he adapted Gosplan in order to make it more focused on the economy and therefore limited the State Planning Commission to only planning (therefore transferring its previous responsibilities to arrange the necessary supplies elsewhere). He also adapted where investment was distributed to after the war such as early investment after the war went to regions which had been occupied by the Germans (for example, Donets Region). Stalin also created new policies in order to boost the economy and increase production, in the form of the fourth year plan.

    • Word count: 1631
  10. Why was there a Sino-Soviet split by the late 1960s?

    China and the USSR it seemed, had interpreted Marxist ideology in different ways to their own benefit, and were neither willing to compromise, nor discuss their options. Such behaviour was common throughout their alliance, and these personal traits played a contributory factor in the deterioration of relations. Mao called Soviet Communism 'social fascism', and was deeply suspicious of Khrushchev's 'revisionist' attitude towards the West, and his detachment from Stalin. The allegations were by no means one-sided; Khrushchev declared the Chinese 'Trotskyists', citing Mao's' Cultural Revolution, and other attempts to advocate a proletarian world revolution, as 'raging fanaticism' that threatened to destroy the world.

    • Word count: 1901
  11. Examine The Claim That Between 1945 & 47, The US And The British Failed To Understand The Fears And Needs Of The USSR.

    With the US and British were pushing for their own opportunist goals of a post-war world, they are fundamentally over looking the 'fears and needs' of a post-war USSR. An ideal starting point top assess this fundamental failure to understand the 'fears and needs' of the USSR by the British and The US is Winston Churchill's famous 'Iron Curtain' speech which was made in March '46. Displaying the traditionalist ignorance he passionately describes how an 'iron curtain' of 'Soviet influence...and increasing measure of control from Moscow' has descended on the whole of Central and Eastern Europe.

    • Word count: 1073
  12. To What Extent Have The Attempts For A Palestinian State Been Blocked By The Actions of Israel And The United States of America ?

    One of the main policies that have been extremely detrimental in maintaining the sovereignty of the Palestinian lands, and making any future Palestinian state look increasingly bleak is the Israeli settlements within the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. What these settlements constitute are small communities within the two enclaves Israel captured in the Six-Day war, and transporting their citizens to live within these heavily fortified and protected communities built upon what was the Arab State. What makes these settlements so destructive to the Palestinians lives, is the fact that each settlement is connected by web of protected roads, only

    • Word count: 4603
  13. Ronald Wilson Reagan still found a way to change the face of the United States of America completely. Reagans life and presidency show the incredible achievements he made as an individual and the power of his actions.

    As Ronald grew up he moved around frequently because of his father's drinking problems. Eventually Reagan went to Eureka College and got a BA in economics and sociology. As he began his career, Ronald was a sportscaster for radio stations, but eventually found himself in California. He was able to get a job with Warner Bros. and acted in most movies as a character very similar to himself. Early on in his acting career Reagan was a spokesman for General Electric, which showed a "slight move towards Republicanism, through his support of large corporations" (Rossiter 1102).

    • Word count: 1660
  14. Mao Essay

    It was through the Long March that he was able to gain leadership of the Communist Party of China, one of his rivals died in battle, and another was in favour of organized battle and Mao had already proven that guerrilla warfare was much more fitting to their army.5 Mao even had his own basic principles of guerrilla warfare, something that he got his Red Army soldiers to memorize and recite, "The enemy advances: we retreat. The enemy halts; we harass.

    • Word count: 1841
  15. How far was Truman personally responsible for the development of the Cold War?

    By linking the issue of US loans to the struggle against communism, Truman was able to gain support for his policy of 'containment'. He announced this change in policy from isolationism to containment in his speech to Congress on 12 March 1947 and in order to gain the support of the Congress, he had to exaggerate the USA's differences with the Soviet Union. The Truman Doctrine became a declaration of the US's commitment against tyranny and the juxtaposition of slavery and freedom.

    • Word count: 1468
  16. Tsar downfall

    The war caused severe disruption to Russia's transport system, particularly the railway system, which had collapsed by 1916. Food couldn't be supplied to cities, particularly Petrograd, where the food shortages were worst. The fact that the February Revolution took place in Petrograd, where conditions were the worst suggests that the Revolution which caused the Tsar's downfall was a consequence of the war rather than being caused by the Tsar himself. Also, trade unions and revolutionary groups were most prominent in large cities such as Petrograd, which could be another reason for the Revolution, particularly as the proletariat would have been disgruntled due to the economic situation and food shortage.

    • Word count: 1251
  17. Topic: Did Pierre Elliot Trudeau overreact to the October Crisis of 1970 when he instituted the War Measures Act?

    So, one alternative to the War Measures Act was implementing martial law. By doing this Trudeau only be putting restrictions on what civilians can do and they would only be arrested if there was a reasonable cause. This is far more human then just throwing people in jail and having no proof that they have done anything, the war measures act would have done this. Martial law would have allowed Trudeau to place certain regulations in place that would have allowed society to run normally as it usually would.

    • Word count: 1624
  18. Free essay

    Assess how Successful Anwar Sadats Domestic and Foreign Policies were from 1970 to 1981

    marked the beginning of the Middle East peace process, one which still holes peace between the two nations today, far beyond his reign. Sadat wanted to gain permanent peace with Israel to cut military costs and therefore boost their economy. Although Camp David had seen a momentous agreement between two very different nations, with a background of war and unrest, relations with other Arab states had detiriated. Sadat knew that bringing Palestinian problems to the table at Camp David would make Israel less likely to promise any sort of peace deal.

    • Word count: 1151
  19. Why did the USA become involved in the Korean War in the years 1950-53?

    Any failure of containment was potentially disastrous. According to the USA the loss of SK might well lead to a chain reaction leading to the loss of much of the rest of Asia, including Japan. This was called the domino theory. As a result of the policy of containment, in 1950 Truman needed a crisis to sell the NSC 68 program which said the US needed to increase its conventional armed forces significantly to put them in par with those of the SU.

    • Word count: 1072
  20. How far sas the Sino-Soviet Split of the late 1960s the result of ideological differences between the two Communist powers?

    Therefore although the Sino-Soviet split was not solely the result of ideological differences as national interests and the personalities of Mao and Khrushchev were also to blame, ideology was still a source of conflict between the two communist powers. Even in 1954, when relations between China and Russia had been amicable following the 1950 Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance, Khrushchev informed others that "Conflict with China is inevitable' and was dismissive of efforts made to welcome him during his visit, describing the atmosphere during his visit as "typically Oriental"1.

    • Word count: 1086
  21. How far do you agree with the view that the origins of the Cold War in 1945-46 owed much to ideological differences and little to personalities?

    Therefore while ideological differences were at the root of the Cold War, the impact of the personalities of Winston Churchill, Clement Attlee, Franklin Roosevelt, George Kennan and, most notably, Joseph Stalin and Harry Truman, lead to increasing tension due to their inability to co-operate with or even understand each other. The impact of personalities is most strongly demonstrated by the contrast between the two American presidents Roosevelt and Truman, and the subsequent deterioration of relations between the two superpowers during the latter's presidency.

    • Word count: 1733
  22. To what extent had the USSR recovered from the impact of the Second World War by 1953?

    The peasants were essentially bound to their land as they had no access to funds or passports to travel. The two types of farms faced disadvantages, for example the Kolkhozy farms (collective state farms) had to meet state obligations which were 60-70% of their output and only received trivial rewards in return (such as sacks of potatoes). Even though the war had caused so many deaths, the Politburo remained to see the peasants as disposable after the war. The agricultural output in 1945 was only 60% of what it had been before the war, and as a result food shortages that had occurred previously (due to the farm workers going to the front, and with them taking machinery and horses)

    • Word count: 1546
  23. How important was Stalins Leadership in relation to other factors, in accounting for the soviet victory in the war against Germany?

    Therefore they created a sense of terror that deterred any resistance against Stalin and the regime from building up effectively as well as maintaining discipline and security within the army. This was obviously a crucial factor in Soviet success, without this the Red Army would not have fought effectively. Although the NKVD were very effective throughout the war and must certainly be credited in the Soviet success, Stalin was in overall control of the body, and therefore could also claim some of this as his own.

    • Word count: 2033
  24. Czech Heritage

    My heritage, which is Czechoslovakian, traces back a long way to my ancestors. My grandparents learned from their parents where they came from and passed it on to future generations such as my parents who passed it then on to me. I have realized the big impact my heritage has made on me. The very customs my family celebrates on holidays and the special days we celebrate our heritage with, not only my family but all Czechs, have shaped the way I live and how I do things.

    • Word count: 1056
  25. The person who deserves the most credit for ending the Cold War is Ronald Reagan. Discuss

    One area of the Cold War in which Reagan deserves due credit for ending was the Nuclear Arms race. It is here that the distinction must be made between the policies of Reagan's first and second term in office. In the former, Reagan actually resumed the Nuclear Arms race after a period of d�tente between 1963 and 1979, arising as a result of his electoral promise to the American public to restore American pride, as a response to aggressive Soviet actions after SALT I in the deployment of SS-20 missiles in Eastern Europe, among other actions, as well as his personal belief that the Soviet Union was "the evil empire", among other reasons.

    • Word count: 1898

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