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AS and A Level: International History, 1945-1991

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  1. Bletchley park

    Source C is primary source and contains a description of work involved in Hut 6, written by one of the code breakers. It tells us that the code breakers decoded the enigma codes but were not actually informed of the results of the important messages they had translated. This shows Hut 6 members were kept in isolation to prevent information leakage and only the imperative members of B.P. knew exactly what was happening. This sense of privacy in source B supports source A as Hut 6 members were kept in isolation just like the Hut 3 members because they did not know what was happening outside their involvement.

    • Word count: 2236
  2. Truman - Guilty or Innocent

    By 1946, Greece and Czechoslovakia were the only countries in Eastern Europe that weren't Communist. Even in Greece, the government, which was being supported by British soldiers, was having to fight a civil war against the Communists. In February 1947, the British told Truman they could no longer afford to keep their soldiers in Greece. Truman stepped in to take over and in March 1947, he told the American Congress it was America's job to stop communism growing any stronger.

    • Word count: 1141
  3. Why was there a fear of communism in America in the 1950s

    Both superpowers rushed to establish spheres of influence in Europe. Stalin wished to establish a buffer region of pro-Soviet states in Eastern Europe in order to prevent the recurrence of invasions such as those undertaken by Germany during the war. The Red Army established puppet governments in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania, adding to the ranks of independently established pro-Soviet governments in Albania and Yugoslavia. Truman and his advisors saw Soviet actions in Eastern Europe as preparations for a Soviet take-over of the rest of Europe. France and Italy already had strong communist parties, who were close to coming to power.

    • Word count: 882
  4. Free essay

    World War One: Break of the Stalemate

    However due to massive errors of judgement, bad weather conditions and poor planning, numerical advantages were lost by both sides in in a series of attacks resulting in catastrophic losses of life; most notably were the Allied offensives at the Somme and Ypres and the German offensive at Verdun. Because of these neither side was in a position to win a decisive victory, and the western front remained in stalemate. But several things changed as 1918 drew closer, which eventually led to the end of the stand-off and broke the western front into open warfare.

    • Word count: 643
  5. platoon vs jarhead

    Platoon's impact was both criticized and liked. The film however portrayed the Americans as violent and sometimes sick. Jarhead was credited for its unique portrayal of Gulf War Marines who battled more boredom and a sense of isolation rather than enemy combatants. Anthony Swoff Swofford is sent to the 1st gulf war to fight but tackles boredom and isolation rather than enemy combatants. Jarhead was based on the memoirs of the real-life Anthony Swofford, who did serve as a sniper in the 1991 Gulf War; the title comes from military slang for a Marine enlistee.

    • Word count: 2048
  6. USA isolationism

    * Domestic priorities Successive Presidents had to follow public opinion and put their emphasis on home affairs. For example, Roosevelt stressed this nationalistic approach during the depression and in hindsight this is understandable - intervention in trouble might have hindered the New Deal 2. THE LIMITS OF ISOLATIONSIM * Economic and cultural influences All around the world American influence was being felt - in fashions & customs. The rest of the world saw US movies, drove Ford cars and drank Coca-Cola. Economically, the USA helped bring stability to countries through investment * 'Independent internationalism' In reality America was not truly isolationist.

    • Word count: 935
  7. Which of the following problems do you consider to have been the most serious threat facing American society in the 1920s: a) Organised crime b) Racial and religious intolerance c) The growing divisions between the rich and poor.

    In 1919 two communist parties were established in America, a strictly capitalist country. There was also a wave of bomb attacks by anarchists known as the reds. Between 1914 and 1919 prices had doubled, yet wages had hardly risen at all. Workers demanded higher wages but their employers new that they had the upper hand due to the high amount of unemployment at the time. Employees were not hard to find and jobs could easily be filled, especially due to the 4 million soldiers returning to America trying to find work. Violent waves of strikes happened during 1919 as a result of this problem.

    • Word count: 2666
  8. Why did military tactics cause USA to withdraw from Vietnam?

    The climate of Vietnam was very hot with high humidity, and this negatively effected American morale, as they were not used to such temperatures. American soldiers were fighting to prevent communism taking over a country on the other side of the world to where they lived. A third of American soldiers had been drafted and were only fighting because their government had forced them to. Drafted soldiers only had to serve for a certain amount of time, and this meant they were less likely to risk their lives.

    • Word count: 1640
  9. To what extent were germany to blame for the outbreak of ww1

    The German war council of 1912 is an indicator in which to suggest that Germany was planning a war. Within the council military advises had gathered to discuss the Balkan crisis. The Kaiser discussed a pre - emptive war, discussing the actions that Germany would take in the event of a war declaration. With regards to alliances in 1890 alliances had already began to emerge, with Germany, Austria Hungary and Italy emerging in the military alliance. France and Russia however were part of the Triple Entente.

    • Word count: 3345
  10. Free essay

    What Impression Does Charles Frazier Create Of Ada In Chapter 2 Of Cold Mountain

    This links in with Ada Monroe as she is also presented as an isolated figure. The first image of her is linked to Inman in that she is also writing a letter; a lonely and silent activity. We don't know straight away whom the letter is to but we can guess that it is to Inman because of the content of the letter. Inman's letter seems to be to a long lots love he wants to go back to her, and Ada hints at how long they have been separated and Inman has been away for a long time due to war. Both letters reveal some sense of longing, a need to be with someone.

    • Word count: 754
  11. Assess the impact on the USSR of the Great Patriotic War

    Other social factors included were the Army's unceasing need for men to fight. The need for troops seemed unending, the longer the war continued the longer the list of casualty's consequently in the continuing need for troops. At the end of the war 8,000,000 people had died under the Red Army with another 5,000,000 men in active service. Men from the country joined the Army in the hope that it would provide them with a skill and thereby bettering them for civilian life. It helped people even if they did not gain a skill that they could not later put to use in civilian life, military service affected their social status pulling them out of the rut which they had previously been settled in.

    • Word count: 1243
  12. world war one propaganda, sources question

    The author, a well known respected author has researched 40 years worth of sources and information. Therefore I feel that, here we have a powerful, useful source for historians studying propaganda, just from this very point. It captures a feeling of what an average person, would witness, it is a novel which opens up to a more real life understanding. The source itself is about a man going to the cinema, finding his movie interrupted by patriotic songs and spirit lifting words, encouraging them to join the army. The purpose of this source is most definitely a passionate writer as through my own knowledge, I understand that John Harris has written many literatures.

    • Word count: 1244
  13. Why did the French leave Vietnam in 1954?

    This was would also cost them a lot of money and so they had to ask help of the U.S for finance. Throughout this war too many deaths, prisoners, and wounded men appeared and this in itself was another cost against the French. This soon aided the fact that the strength of French strongpoint were decreasing immensely. Also, there were too many deaths, prisoners, and wounded men for the French and so their resistance quickly decreased. The evidence for the costs can be found in many different sources which show that in 1945, the French military expenditure in Indochina was 3200 million francs.

    • Word count: 981
  14. How far were White weaknesses responsible for Red success in Russian Civil War?

    For example, the Kadets pushed forward their idea of "A Russia Great, United and Indivisible" while the Don Cossacks, who agreed to fight to counter the Bolshevik threat, wanted their own independence. Much of the population under Denikin's rule consisted of non-Russians who had no interest in returning to the oppression of the Tsarist "prison house of nations". Thus, it was not uncommon for them to keep their units separate and to disobey orders from the central command, resulting in the damaging of the Whites.

    • Word count: 2948
  15. How far was the USSR responsible for the outbreak of the Cold War?

    The ideological differences are crucial as well, for they are the foundation to the reasons why the USA and USSR could not agree upon each other's policies. Prior to the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Red Army had already liberated Poland from the Nazis but at the expense of the London Poles, thus of democracy. After staging the crushing of the London Poles by the Nazis, Stalin had a dominant position at the time of the conferences, and thus was able to make some nonnegotiable claims such as that the Russians were to keep territory from the eastern portion of Poland and Poland was to compensate for that by extending its Western borders, thus forcing out millions of Germans.

    • Word count: 4209
  16. Why was it important that the Gallipoli Campaign should succeed?

    Winston Churchill, along side other key political and military figures had been growing desperate for a new strategy to try and break through the defences of the opposition on the Western Front. With hundreds of casualties and very little progress it was decided that a new line of attack should be focused on one of Germany's weaker allies; Turkey. The allies' thought that Turkey was the weakest link of the central powers so would be the easiest to topple. As Lloyd George said, they were 'the props under Germany', however we know now that this was a seriously underestimated judgment.

    • Word count: 678
  17. Describe and assess the impact of exploration and colonization for one major European country between 1492-1600

    The Spanish soon discovered gold and as a result European gold amounts increased by a fifth from 1503 and 16604 yet it was silver production that generated more wealth for Spain than anything else discovered in the Americas. The Spaniards discovered silver in 1545, when an indigenous Indian located the famed 2000 ft high silver mountain of San Luis Potosi in modern day Bolivia. Over the next 20 years, a large number of successive silver strikes grounded Spain in their colonizing of the Americas.

    • Word count: 1988
  18. 'The Cabinet War Rooms was an effective but uncomfortable site from which to run the Second World War.'

    In July 1943 the Ministry of Home Security stated that anything higher than a 500-pound bomb (50kg) would damage or destroy the Cabinet War Rooms. Around that time, 1700-1800 pound bombs were common. The staff knew that the slab was not completely reliable, but, as John Winnifrith says, 'healthy joking was made'. Although they were uneasy about it, the staff (including Winnifrith) knew that compared to the most of London the Cabinet War Rooms were safe. The Cabinet War Rooms were also safe from attack - no German spy ever set foot in the Cabinet War Rooms, or even knew about them. This aspect of security proves that the Cabinet War Rooms were effective in doing this.

    • Word count: 988
  19. Explain the importance of the Battle of Britain as a turning point of the Second World War

    Germany's invasion of the British Isles by e was known as Operation Sea Lion. The battle showed the importance of radar, as the Luftwaffe, as the British had to rely upon radar to minimise their loses as the ground staff, which created many jobs for women as men had to fight, plotted the positions of the Luftwaffe, so that they would be easily recognisable by the RAF. The radar stations also gave information to the public and updated information about the war.

    • Word count: 867
  20. Assess the view that Chamberlain's main aim in following a policy of appeasement in 1937-38 was to buy enough time to enable Britain to rearm

    Furthermore it's understandable that Germany would want their troops in 'their own backyard' (Rhineland) to act as a buffer from France which was the same reason the French wanted the area de-militarised. Furthermore there was a growing attitude that Germany wasn't responsible for the war guilt clause of the Treaty of Versailles which was what the whole treaty was based on. This was the general feeling in Britain around the early 1920's with top politicians gaining support for these views.

    • Word count: 1061
  21. Nuclear Energy

    The Earth has limited supplies of certain resources such as, coal and oil. However, nuclear power plants could still produce electricity after coal and oil become insufficient. Also, these nuclear power plants require less fuel than ones that burn fossil fuels. One ton of uranium generates more energy than what is produced by quite a few million tons of coal or several million barrels of oil.

    • Word count: 487
  22. Battling western democracy

    After the second world war, Mao became the ultimate Chinese leader in 1949. Summary CCP POLICY TOWARD THE UNITED STATES, BEFORE PEARL HARBOR Mao's attitude toward the United States switched drastically before Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. Why? The answer can be found in the CCP's ideology, its relations with Moscow, and its domestic politics. When the CCP was founded in the early 1920s under the Comintern's direction, it was born antiimperialist in general and anti-American in particular. The Chinese communists and the GMD were fighting for the throne, but after the Japaneese attack on China, they had to step together in a coalition.

    • Word count: 1963
  23. How was opposition to the Vietnam War portrayed in contemporary literature, film and popular song

    The song also tells us that a lot of soldiers were dying because at the start of the song it says "we were sharp" and at the end of the song it says "they were sharp" so this tells us that of the soldiers that went out together not many of them returned home together. Anybody who was against the war would have used this song to show that they wanted there sons back before they were killed. 2: How do Sources A, B and C show support for the war in Vietnam?

    • Word count: 2071
  24. Compare the Natural Law Theory with Kant's approach in relation to killing in war.

    However upon further study of Kant's categorical imperative it seems that this may not be the case. The first principle of the categorical imperative is that of universability. Moral laws must be able to be applied to every person in every situation. Therefore if one was to apply the law that "murder is wrong" then it must be so in every situation, and therefore killing in war must also be wrong. There cannot be any exceptions, so you could not state that the law is "murder is wrong, except in war" as this would contradict itself, by stating a universal law, that is not always universal!

    • Word count: 902
  25. germany rearmament

    Hitler was also a big fear and was becoming more and more stronger. With his policy he wanted to destroyed the T.O.V and his principal idea was to rearm. He couldn't rearm, it was extremely prohibited in the ToV, but France and Britain let him rearm by many reasons: The first reason is because as they fear communism, they thought that if they let Hitler to grow, he would stop Russia.

    • Word count: 347

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