• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Mideival Outline Essay

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Shrewsbury 1 Austen Shrewsbury Mr. Larry Hayes World Civilizations Feb. 24, 2011 The Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages: The Dark Age of Tumult What is now considered as the "The Middle Ages" (medium aveum, in Latin) is the period in history between the fifth to fifteenth centuries, leading into the Renaissance. Characterized mainly by a continuation in trends begun by the early collapse of the Roman Empire, (i.e. depopulation, deurbanization, and increased barbarian invasion.) Beginning with the death of the Roman Emperor Theodosius in 395 and the subsequent fall of Rome, most of Europe fell into a state of depravity brought about by a foundroyant rise in military campaigns of rogue Tribes to claim territory. This period of chaos in Central Europe took on the name of "The Dark Ages". Initially, this era took on the term "dark" by later onlookers, notably the Italian scholar Petrarch, in reference to the literature of this time; this was due to the backward ways and practices that seemed to prevail during this time. Future historians used the term "dark" simply to denote the fact that little was known about this period; there was a paucity of written history. The Early Middle Ages (I will refer to this period by this term, rather than the misnomer Dark Ages, from this point on.) ...read more.

Middle

At the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II called for the Crusade against the Muslims who had occupied the Holy Land and were attacking the Byzantine Empire and gave a cloth crosses to the knights to be sewn into their armor which gave the Crusades their name. This brings us to the next topic at hand, Knights and their code of Chivalry; which are one of the most famous developments of the middle ages. Medieval knights were mounted warriors who held land in return for military service. Originally, the title of a knight could have been earned exclusively through military achievements and some knights originated from the lower classes of medieval society. However, eventually the knights could became only male descendants of knighted men, while knightly families became regarded as noble. Despite that the title of a knight could not be inherited and every noble had to go through a long process before becoming a knight. The process of becoming a knight started in early childhood usually around age of 7 or 8 years when a boy was sent to his lord's household where he started his training to become a knight. The boy served as a page, kind of waiter and personal servant to his elders from about of 7 to 14 years of age. Page was also taught knightly virtues and conduct as well as battle techniques. ...read more.

Conclusion

Besides struggles for supremacy with secular rulers the Church also put a lot of effort to prevent priestly marriages and simony (purchase of church offices). First major step towards introduction of celibacy of the clergy was made by Pope Gregory VII by publishing an encyclical which absolved the people from their obedience to bishops who allowed priestly marriages. However, the compulsory celibacy of the clergy and ban of priestly marriages was formally introduced with the First Lateran Council in 1123. That way the Roman Catholic Church avoided an eventual division of the land and heritable offices in case if married clergymen produced heirs. The Christian and church doctrine had an absolute "monopoly" over mentality of all classes of feudal society during the period of highly developed feudalism. Any theological or religious opinion which opposed to the official churchly doctrine was considered heretic and was persecuted, while religious believes dominated in all aspects of a life of a Christian. However, the Papacy slowly lost its power to the national monarchs by the 14th century which became obvious after the influence of many reformers, some even priests themselves. One such notable contrary individual is Martin Luther, a priest who posted his Ninety-Five Thesis on the walls of the castle-church in Wittenburg, Germany. This created separation in the thoughts of the people and the Roman Catholic Church, eventually leading to the Protestant Reformation; setting the stage for the Renaissance. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Other Historical Periods section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Other Historical Periods essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Extended Essay: Bismarck and The Unification of Germany

    5 star(s)

    Prussia, therefore became the economic leader of the states. The tremendous impact of economic unity can not be ignored whilst giving an accurate picture of factors influencing German nationalism and in this was, it is unfair to give Bismarck all the credit for uniting the states.

  2. HISTORY: MEDIEVAL WOMEN

    Pregnancy in these days was also a hazardous time for a women, "Overall, one mother out of seven or eight in otherwise well-protected families fell victim to her procreative duties" (Christine Klapisch-Zuber, Women and the Family; 1987). Not only was it a dangerous time for the expecting mother but 45%

  1. The Enlightenment Essay

    with many of the scientific discoveries made during the Scientific Revolution despite the fact that these scientists wanted to exalt God through their work and Christianity was seen by Enlightenment thinkers as something characterized by superstition, not reason. The most radical of the Enlightenment philosophers was Denis Diderot.

  2. Could The Division Of Germany Been Avoided In 1949?

    Therefore there was no hope of cooperation and the division of Germany seemed like the only option that would work all around. Therefore, in reference to this, it can be said that both the East and the West can be said to be at to blame.

  1. How important were the ideas of the Humanists in weakening the authority of the ...

    many people needed for a reformation and so this is why the printing press was such a key tool in allowing reformation to happen and especially in the time it did. There is another side to the debate as the humanists gave the Catholic Church time and reason to reform themselves but this was a missed opportunity for the church.

  2. A direct comparison of the role of central power and control during the late ...

    However it was not just the Soviet period that saw the use of personality cults. Nicholas II saw a cult form around himself 'although it was against his express wishes.'17 This in effect was just a natural progression of the 'little father' philosophy that existed in Tsarist Russia and the cult of Nicholas propelled his status.

  1. Free essay

    Why was Martin Luther so popular by 1521?

    Nevertheless, those who could read would have spread Lutheran ideas by word of mouth. Alternatively, it could be argued that the method which gained him his most substantial support was the utilisation of woodcuts. These carvings depicted various scenes of a degrading nature towards the Pope and the Catholic Church.

  2. The Roman Catholic Church was becoming increasingly unpopular in the Holy Roman Empire before ...

    The 16th century also marked the dawn of discovery. Europeans ventured into new territories and discovered new cultures. People became more conscious of other religions and cultures. It seemed that the discovery of foreign land had removed a layer of wool from Europe?s eyes.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work