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AS and A Level: Modern European History, 1789-1945

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  1. To what extent did the increase in the persecution of witches in Europe from 1550-1650 constitute an attack on women?

    Indeed one strongly suspects that the development of witch hunting into a mass hysteria only became possible when directed primarily at women.? (Katz) ?All wickedness is but little to the wickedness of a woman? What else is woman but foe to friendship, an inescapable punishment, a necessary evil, a natural temptation, a desirable calamity, domestic danger, a delectable detriment, an evil nature, painted with fair colours?.. Women are by nature instruments of Satan ? they are by carnal a structural defect rooted in the original creation.? (Heinrich Kramer, 1487)

    • Word count: 3620
  2. How significant was Lenin between the years 1902-1918 to the formation of the Bolshevik Government?

    Lenin deemed this approach necessary as he was not content to wait for several decades while the BR was consolidated ? partly because as the Social Revolutionaries (SR) were ?uninterested in the intellectual necessities of Marxism?7, they would thus instigate an uprising when it suited them. Additionally, the proletariat were insufficiently large in number for Marx?s next stage, a communist revolution, to take place yet, so by bringing the revolution forward Lenin out manoeuvred fellow communists and the SR. The SR in particular were dangerous since their proposed land reforms gained them the support of the peasantry ? numbering 97

    • Word count: 3475
  3. How far did government policies change towards agriculture in Russia in the period 1856-1964?

    This encouraged the creation of a rural upper class of better off peasants, or Kulaks, in which the Tsarist government saw and found a source of support from[10]. In contrast, Stalin?s Communist Government viewed the peasantry as holding ?backward? religious views and, especially the ?bourgeois? kulaks, as a source of opposition and threat to his Soviet regime. The peasants were fiercely independent, so when Collectivisation was forced on them in the summer of 1929,[11] village priests urged that it was against God?s will[12] and many peasants resisted.

    • Word count: 3260

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  • "Little more than a show and a sham" Discuss this view of Mussolini's economic policies.

    "In conclusion, Mussolini's economic policies were essentially a show and a sham engineered to ensure the regime's support. The battle for land produced few results but was billed as success on an international level. The battle for lira made the country look strong whilst it actually weakened it and resulted in wage cuts. The corporative state did little for the countries workers and was not effective at helping the nations interests. Despite these failures there were two successes. The main one is the government's dealing with the worldwide depression. Their intervention prevented the levels of mass unemployment and recession that were seen in other Western European countries. To a lesser extent, the battle for grain was a success as by 1940 the country was almost self sufficient in this area. Even with these two successes it must be remembered that the countries national debt before the war was over 150 billion lire. With this taken into account it is reasonable to say that Mussolini's economic policies were a show and a sham. History (NAJ) Fascist Economy Essay 3/7/07 Russell Wright 1"

  • Assess the Reasons why Stalin's Political rivals were Unable to Prevent his Rise to Power

    "In conclusion, those that had the skill to oppose Stalin, like Trotsky, didn't realise how much of a threat was and failed to unite against him. He also had a great deal of luck - Lenin's criticisms of him in his testament were not made public, and he had the charge of factionalism to use to discredit anyone who opposed him. However, perhaps above all the most important reason was Stalin's megalomaniac personality, which made him an ideal dictator. Some have commented on his short height, suggesting that he had a tendency to keep himself to himself and was a "loner". Even the number of executions declined after his death. He was mad, evil and ruthless."

  • To what extent is Fascism a single doctrine?

    "In conclusion, it can be said that Fascism ids a single coherent doctrine to a certain extent since both Nazism and Italian Fascism share many fundamental beliefs. The ideas of both helped to shape the doctrine of Fascism and had profound influences on other Fascist regimes both in Europe and abroad. Most notably, Franco's Spain and Vichy France drew many of their central beliefs from the regimes of Hitler and Mussolini. Yet, there are many significant differences and the two should be treated as separate doctrines owing to the profound clashes over areas such as race and the state. Tessa Jones 13.9"

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