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AS and A Level: Modern European History, 1789-1945
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- Marked by Teachers essays 21
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To what extent did the increase in the persecution of witches in Europe from 1550-1650 constitute an attack on women?
Indeed one strongly suspects that the development of witch hunting into a mass hysteria only became possible when directed primarily at women.? (Katz) ?All wickedness is but little to the wickedness of a woman? What else is woman but foe to friendship, an inescapable punishment, a necessary evil, a natural temptation, a desirable calamity, domestic danger, a delectable detriment, an evil nature, painted with fair colours?.. Women are by nature instruments of Satan ? they are by carnal a structural defect rooted in the original creation.? (Heinrich Kramer, 1487)
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Lenin deemed this approach necessary as he was not content to wait for several decades while the BR was consolidated ? partly because as the Social Revolutionaries (SR) were ?uninterested in the intellectual necessities of Marxism?7, they would thus instigate an uprising when it suited them. Additionally, the proletariat were insufficiently large in number for Marx?s next stage, a communist revolution, to take place yet, so by bringing the revolution forward Lenin out manoeuvred fellow communists and the SR. The SR in particular were dangerous since their proposed land reforms gained them the support of the peasantry ? numbering 97
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This encouraged the creation of a rural upper class of better off peasants, or Kulaks, in which the Tsarist government saw and found a source of support from. In contrast, Stalin?s Communist Government viewed the peasantry as holding ?backward? religious views and, especially the ?bourgeois? kulaks, as a source of opposition and threat to his Soviet regime. The peasants were fiercely independent, so when Collectivisation was forced on them in the summer of 1929, village priests urged that it was against God?s will and many peasants resisted.
- Word count: 3260