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AS and A Level: Modern European History, 1789-1945
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To what extent does Stalin deserve the title of Red Tsar when assessing his rule in the context of Russian government from 1855- 1964?5 star(s)
As the General Secretary of the CCP Stalin had influence over all areas of the party, whilst the Politburo became the most influential body, as it controlled the actions of all government departments. Therefore the party became more centralised, as the influence of the grass-roots became less significant. Hence historians such as Richard Pipes claim that Leninism caused Stalinism, as Lenin's party resembled "a more secret order than a party in the normally accepted sense"3, this led to an elitist structure, meaning that Stalin's dictatorship was unavoidable.
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The government was corrupt and centralized and the King's authority had been slowly extended over the country. Under the system, there was a lot of overlapping authority and a great inefficiency in the provincial governments. The only people who could obstruct the royal government in an attempt to save the country was the Parliament of Paris. Unfortunately, its members were only concerned about their own welfare rather than the members of the country. The greatest government weakness was the lack of consistency and order. By 1788, the government was almost bankrupt. The supporters of economic, social and governmental reforms had become increasingly vocal during the reign of Louis XVI.
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The army could now blame the Tsar for everything bad in the military. They blamed him for all their defeats in the war. The low morale and loyalty eventually led to the army defecting and joining the revolutionaries. The spirit of the army was falling and General Krymov felt that 'A revolution is imminent'. The Tsar had no way of protecting himself, and now, he had lost the reason why the last revolution had failed. This, in turn, ended up with the collapse of the Tsarist regime.
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To what extent were economic considerations the main motive for Portuguese exploration and empire building?
Nonetheless by the later part of the century, the so called Gold Coast had been explored and the famine ended, but the Portuguese economic considerations did not stop there as now the country had got used to its new found wealth and wanted more, more land and more gold. So when Portuguese explores found the West Indies at the start of the 16th century they continued to look for gold mines and more famously they competed with Spain to find the fabulous city of El Dorado in the America (the famous City of gold).
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In the process of consolidating his position, Napoleons reforms, had by 1808, destroyed the principles of the French Revolution. Discuss.
In crowning himself Emperor, Napoleon had placed himself in a position above the rest of the country and whilst the Directory was, albeit corrupted, but run by five Directors which was an attempt at restraining those in power to change to dictatorship. This meant that Napoleon was the sole ruler of the country and that his descendants would take control after him, this mirrored the hereditary principle of a monarchy; which made the constitution even more of a return to the Ancien R�gime.
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The Wannsee Conference was entirely responsible for the Holocaust. How valid is this assessment of the causes of the Holocaust?
He believes that German peoples "entire life is dominated and endangered by the Jewish spirit." This shows that predating the rise of Nazism, some of the people of Germany would have been pleased to remove the Jews from their nation. This attribution is extremely important as it predates the rise of Nazism in Germany and indicates the opinion of some elements within the German social elite. Endemic Anti-Semitism is also obviously apparent in Adolf Hitler's Autobiography "Mein Kampf" which means "My Struggle". The book was written in 1924 during his time in Landsburg prison. In document 2 which is an extract from this book he states, when talking about the Jewish people " ...his intellect will never have a constructive effect, but will be destructive."
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the Congress should be measured by the aims of those involved and not by later judgements; these two aims were largely achieved indicating that the failures of the Settlement did not outweigh the successes. Underlying the Settlement and exercising considerable influence were the treaties that had been concluded amongst the allies prior to 1814. For example, in the Treaty of Kalisch 1813, Russia made specific promises regarding Prussia's right to recover her former strength in Germany. In this way, the Congress partly became an attempt to reconcile existing agreements rather than enforce principles, and therefore constitutes failure of the Settlement.
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During the Middle Ages anti-Semitism in Europe was based on religious hostility, the Jews were viewed with suspicion and blamed for the death of Christ and for not accepting Christianity. Medieval Europe saw Jews forced to live in ghettos and in Venice in 1516, the world's first ghetto was established, confining and segregating them and prohibiting the jobs they were allowed to do. The conditions were harsh, their property could be destroyed and they faced threats of violence but the Jews survived and built up a thriving community (http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org 2010).
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* In June 1924, while dancing in Prague, she tore a ligament in her knee quiet severely and her dancing career came to an end. Dancing and the Weimar Culture * Dancing was a large and vibrant part of the Weimar culture * During this period, a new dancing style evolved where dancers performed free, athletic movements and held contorted, gymnastic poses. * Dancing became the forefront of the expressionist movement where dancers aimed to receive the human spirit by encouraging people to rediscover their emotions.
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In the long term this enabled O'Connell to have a wider support base for his Catholic Association including from the Catholic Church and influential members including Archbishop McHale. During 'monster meetings' O'Connell used his policy of Brinkmanship where he hinted at the use of violence to the British government, this meant that the British government were paying attention to the Irish Question for the first time since the Act of Union. O'Connell's Catholic Association (established 1823) introduced the Catholic Rent, a system of paying one penny a month to support the Association.
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'In the context of the period 1715-1815 to what extent were economic factors the cause of the French Revolution?'
This conflict, lasting until 1714, combined with Louis' high spending on the Palace of Versailles, led to a legacy upon his death in 1715 of high debt and low production. High military outgoings, coupled with a great famine in 1709-10, left France, as F�nelon remarked, as 'just one great desolate hospital lacking provisions'1. Though France had become a major world power during the reign of Louis XIV, it was now engaged in a heavy competition to beat off rivalry from the growing influences of Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain.
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How effectively did Irish Catholic and Nationalist leaders advance their cause in the years 1801-1921?
However, O'Connell was soon to realize that continuing to effectively move toward emancipation would be increasingly difficult. Robert Peel, the home secretary, was able to offer a solution that would concede to the Catholics while at the same time undermining O'Connell. This was achieved by the 1829 'Catholic Relief Act' which withdrew many of the laws suppressing the Catholics and led to the electorate in Ireland shrinking from 216,000 to 37,000. O'Connell was now in a much weaker position. This completely diminished the power of the Catholic Association.
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The peasants, who had endured suffering under the Tsars for centuries, were increasingly afflicted by Stalin's fierce implementation of collectivization. The workers, who had continuously struggled for human rights, were to be excluded due to the procurement of industrialisation. The rights of the party members, many unfairly exterminated during the purges, were held in contempt mainly because their beliefs were contrary to Stalin's. Conversely, Soviet women were afforded new rights, such as legal abortion, allowing them a degree of equality in society comparable to anywhere in the rest of the contemporary world.
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By 1922 the Nazi party had grown significantly. Although Hitler's oratorical skills were integral to this it was largely because there was a backlash against socialist and liberal politics in Bavaria as Germany's economic problems deepened and the weaknesses of the Weimar regime became apparent. Hitler used these weaknesses to his advantage and the Munich Putsch was took place. However without the support from the police the Munich Putsch failed instantly. Hitler was arrested and tried for treason, however he was given a lenient sentence as the judges shared Hitler's anti-Communist opinions.
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This Triumvirate of these three leaders came together to keep Trotsky out of power. Why was Trotsky unpopular? * Trotsky had a power base in the Red Army; many Bolsheviks were afraid that he would become a military dictator. * Trotsky was also personally unpopular; he was highly intellectual and had a reputation for arrogance. He did not make alliances with his colleagues. * Trotsky had been a Menshevik and his late conversion to Bolshevism counted against him. * He was violently opposed to the growth of the Party bureaucracy, which Stalin headed and gave many people comfortable jobs.
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DBP was a catalyst for the outcomes delivered by the Conference and had direct and indirect ramifications. This was significant because it was also the first time that a western nation was defeated by a South-Eastern Communist country. It would not be the last. * The commencing Geneva Peace Conference 8th of May 1954, both parties sought for political settlements. France even with the backing of the US, now wanted to withdrawal from Vietnam whilst the Viet Minh wanted complete self determination.
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peasant and also the Soviet intelligentsia a larger group than its tsarist counterpart, for it includes all categories of white collar workers, from scientists to artists to clerks. * The revolution from above did not merely destroy the old order. It also established the institutions that have characterised Soviet society ever since. These were: collective and state farms; a planned economy geared for rapid industrial growth; and a centralised political system headed by the General Secretary, supported by the secret police and controlling a rigidly censored communications system.
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I know this would have been a very common sighting in a prisoner of war camp because the Germans blamed the eastern Europeans and the Polish for the start of the war and therefore treated the eastern Europeans worst in the POW camps. Another realistic aspect of Escape to Victory would be the way in which torture was used. In escape to victory it shows the eastern Europeans and the polish being starved. I know that starvation was used as a form of torture.
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34), suggesting that they had very little potential in gaining support because of their limited, timid actions combined with a violent, thuggish persona, in turn sparking discontent across the board. It should be addressed, however, that after 1919 the left's belligerent appearance and status was mainly construed from Fascist emphasis on it, therefore a long-term sustained negative reputation affected their potential. Fascism, in effect, was, to an extent, able to control the reputation and status of the opposition. The socialists' antagonistic image intrinsically sparked mainly from workers' actions during the Biennio Rosso ('two red years')
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David Fraser states that "the Commandos flourished. The raiding policy of which they were the spearhead, led to an increasing expertise in amphibious operations... The combination [of airborne and Commando forces] bore triumphant fruit in Sicily, in Italy and ultimately in Normandy - the greatest operation against a defended coast in the history of war." 5 Richard Overy argues that the morale impact of the Commandos was significant, not only for the average man on the street, but the war planners and the leaders of the allies.
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Mussolini(TM)s rise to power up to 1922 owes more to the failures of others than to his own strengths. To what extent is this true?
The North/ South divide in Italy was a key problem for the formation of this unified nation as the North was far more industrialised than the South which was mainly rural and backward. These problems were further aggravated by the First World War. Southern savings were used to finance Northern industrial investments and only a few regions enjoyed a wartime boom. The government were unable to make gains in the Paris peace negotiations or to maintain order and to rebuild the economy.
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This sequence of events shows that, from the beginning, Stalin faced opposition and suspicion, his persona and actions separated him from many members of the party, and studying Stalin, it could be argued that theses early examples of the hostility directed at him that would later become the founding for the 'Purges'. As well as this, it shows that Stalin had to rely on other party members to support him, perhaps the basis for his paranoia regarding resistance in later years.
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Therefore the Crimean War may not have been solely responsible for establishing the idea of "change", but rather acted as a catalyst. Principally, 'The Crimean humiliation had made emancipation seem vital' [J. Gooding; 'Rulers and Subjects: Government and society in Russia']. However, one may argue that other elements linked with the serfs contributed to their ultimate emancipation by Alexander II. A significant factor to regard is the attitudes of the peasants. The serfs did not choose to associate any problems that they had with the Tsar; they directed the anger that they had about their poor financial situations at the 'Mir' (local village communes).
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To what extent were technological changes the biggest feature in the changing nature of warfare between 1815 and 1918
The death toll of the Russians was far higher than the allies due to far superior technology. The Minnie bullet which was invented in 1849 allowed the bullets to be dropped down a rifled gun and the range was 5 times longer than previously. Not only was it quickly reloaded but it had devastating power being able to shoot through at least two people in the battlefield, it was used extensively throughout the American Civil war. Despite the fact it could reload five times faster than the smooth ball tactics didn't change sufficiently and death rates in the battlefield greatly increased (90% of battle injuries were from the Minnie bullet).
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How could a system of even handed justice be introduced when millions of the peasantry were subject to the arbitrary will of the landed proprietors? How could agricultural and industrial progress be made without free labour? ... All this was generally felt by the educated classes ..." (Wallace's Russia to 1905) Alexander II knew (as his father had) that serfdom was the root of Russia's economic backwardness. Thus, in 1861, the serfs were freed. Such a step, coupled with many other reforms, amongst which the most popular were the release of the surviving Decembrists and other rebels from exile, a
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