• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Mussolini comes to power, October 1922.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Mussolini comes to power, October 1922 Since September 1922, rumours of an imminent fascist march on Rome had been circulating. This followed a general surge of support for the fascist movement after the taking over of local government and dispersing of socialist councils by the fascists during the summer. Liberal politicians had been giving serious consideration to the incorporation of Mussolini into a new government, but Mussolini had rejected this, stating that he would assume the position of Prime Minister or not be a part of government at all. On the 16th of October, Mussolini and other leading fascists agreed to stage an insurrection. On the 24th, a fascist congress decided to organise a march on Rome with the intention of seizing power. Fascist squads were to take over key buildings and areas in north and central Italy, and others were to assemble on the 27th outside of Rome, to march into the city the following day. Mussolini made it abundantly clear that the fascists would either be offered control of the country or take it by force. Mussolini was initially doubtful with regards to the march, and hoped that he might be appointed through peaceful, legal means. ...read more.

Middle

He was also influenced by the fact that his mother was a fascist sympathiser, as was the duke of Aosta, his cousin. This led to the fear of a potential rival monarch should he oppose fascism, particularly if it succeeded and he was swept away, only to be replaced by his cousin. This added an extra dimension to the dilemma that the King faced. His pessimistic outlook led him to believe (seemingly mistakenly) that the army would not be able to cope adequately with the fascist threat. On top of this, he had received conflicting reports about the attitude of the army towards the fascist movement. Some of his generals were deeply involved in the organisation, while others opposed it. Finally, he feared that the divide in terms of attitude towards the fascists might lead to a rift within the country, perhaps even civil war. This was arguably the main factor that influenced his ultimate stance with regards to the fascists and Mussolini, in that he could not be responsible for such conflict. All of these factors contributed to the ultimate decisions made by King Victor Emmanuel. ...read more.

Conclusion

The socialists did not order a strike in protest at Mussolini's new position, and some even accepted it as it represented the demise of liberal government. Members of the elite, such as major industrialists and agriculturalists, advocated a Mussolini-led government and this, in particular the financial support it entailed, was important to the fascists. Despite the early anti-church stance of the Fascist movement, Mussolini had become friendly with the pope, Pius XI, who had previously allowed the display of fascist banners in church and stressed the need for a peaceful settlement of the political situation on October. The support of the head of the catholic church was inevitably an extremely important tool in terms of gaining support for Mussolini, due to the huge number of catholics within the country. In other areas able to influence the populace, the liberal press supported fascist violence in that it was a solution to anarchy. The intellectual classes lent their support to fascism as a way of 'cleansing' Italy and restoring its former glory. Support came, in some shape or form, from many important areas within the country, although the fascists were definitely not swept to power through popular support. Mussolini's individual charisma played a large part in fascist popularity rather than deep conviction in the ideologies of fascism as a movement. ?? ?? ?? ?? Jack Tunstall ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Mussolini(TM)s rise to power up to 1922 owes more to the failures of others ...

    HHh For example the most significant mistake was made by Giolitti in his 1922 electoral pact with Mussolini. He was cleverly persuaded by Mussolini to fight the election together and not stand in each other's way.

  2. To What Extent Was The Failure Of The Socialist Movement Responsible For Bringing Mussolini ...

    The first of these are the events that occurred in Fiume through the actions of Gabrielle D'Annunzio. Angry at the so-called "mutilated victory", many Nationalist's believed that action had to be taken so that Italy could prove itself as a great nation, and to do this some believed it was

  1. Why did Mussolini come to Power in 1922?

    Why from 1922, were Mussolini and the Fascists able to gain control over the Italian State? On 29th October 1922 Mussolini was made Prime Minister of Italy.

  2. How Successfully did Mussolini Consolidate Fascist Power between 1922 and 1925?

    They thought that the future of Fascism was out of their hands and destined for deterioration, however the King refused to act, wanting others to take the lead. If the opposition were not so divided and indecisive then Mussolini would surely have been dismissed; there would have been no further consolidation of Fascist power.

  1. "The Fascist Economy was pure illusion". Discuss

    On the whole, the battle for Lira had the opposite effect of its intentions. It caused serious deflation too in the country, as Volpi tried to set a "balanced" budget (revenue = expenditure) but couldn't keep the correct equilibrium for this.

  2. Describe the main stages by which Fascism developed into an effective political movement between ...

    By spring of 1921 fascism was now a rural phenomenon and fascist membership was mushrooming Another key stage at which Fascism developed into a political movement was getting onto Giolliti's electoral platform inn May 1921. The moves to the right and the growing support for fascism in the countryside and urban areas convinced Giolitti that they would help his cause.

  1. Why Did Mussolini become Prime Minister in 1922?

    Wiskemann suggests that the King was misinformed about the actual numbers involved in the March and thought that the army was outnumbered and was set to succeed and that if the King did declare Martial Law it would not change anything and therefore there was no reason to declare a state of martial law.

  2. The question regarding why fascists came to power in Italy during 1922 is a ...

    It is essential to declare that the opponents of Mussolini do not include the King as he did not resist Mussolini. The liberal parliamentary government faced struggles following World War I which included economic decline and the nation's discontent with the peace treaty.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work