• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4
  5. 5
  6. 6
  7. 7
  8. 8
  9. 9
  10. 10
  11. 11
  12. 12
  13. 13
  14. 14
  15. 15
  16. 16
  17. 17
  18. 18

Notes on Cleopatra and her links with Rome

Extracts from this document...


Historical Context Geography, topography and resources of Ptolemaic Egypt and its neighbours Geography and topography Alexander the Great died in 323 BC. The empire he left was too vast and unmanageable for any one person to govern. It was ultimately divided into three areas: Egypt of the Ptolemaic Dynasty; Greece, Macedonia and Asia Minor of the Antigonid Dynasty; and the Eastern lands including Persia, Syria and Mesopotamia of the Seleucid Dynasty. By 303 BC the Ptolemaic Dynasty emerged as the most prosperous and survived for 300 years, often despite its murderous and macabre rulers. Egypt, although surrounded by desert and sea, was a wealthy and prosperous country. The Nile river was its artery and it was worshipped and honoured by its people for the life that it sustained. The Blue Nile and the White Nile joined to form the Nile, the longest river the world. On its course it is bordered by cliffs until it reaches the delta marshlands. It cuts the surrounding deserts into the Eastern Desert extending to the Red Sea, and the Western Desert, reaching to the Libyan frontier. The Eastern Desert, unlike the barren Libyan Desert, contains wadis and a mountain range. A third desert, the Sinai, it open land and is crossed with wadis and hills. The Nile River travels through Upper or Southern Egypt to Lower or Northern Egypt, along the Nile valley, to the Delta and into the Mediterranean. Egypt had natural defenses due to its unique geographical position. Only its northern border was exposed, and this could only be approached by a narrow road through Pelusium, along the Palestine coast. It was also opened at the Delta via the Mediterranean Sea and the Nile. Resources The Produce of the fertile lands of the Nile was numerous - cotton, corn, barley, flax and rice. The surrounding areas produced many minerals including limestone, gypsum, alabaster, copper, iron, granite and tin. ...read more.


He built the Forum Julium with a glided statue of Cleopatra inside the Temple of Venus. Republican Romans hated Cleopatra. They saw her as a woman, a foreigner, a tyrant, an Easterner and an autocrat and despised her extravagant exoticism. They could only wonder what influence she was asserting on Caesar. The perpetual dictatorship confirmed their fears that Caesar wanted to rule alone, like a foreign monarch. Another law permitting Caesar to have as many wives as he wished was not passed, and would have cut close to the republican bone. On March 15, 44BC Caesar was murdered as the result of a conspiracy led by Brutus and Cassius. With Caesar's death Cleopatra's security and her splendid vision of Egyptian world supremacy, perhaps in partnership with Roma, were dashed. Neither Caesarion or Cleopatra were mentioned in Caesar's will due to their foreignness. Relationship with Mark Antony: eastern acquisitions and the 'donations' of Alexandria Octavian was Caesar's great nephew and legally adopted son. He was the inheritor of all that was Caesar's and this included the empire. At nine-teen, however he seemed too young and inexperienced to challenge Antony, Caesar's fellow consul, who was 40 years of age. Antony was determined to oppose Octavian and saw himself as the friend and successor of Caesar and at least in name, the legitimate had of state. Cleopatra returned to Alexandria, being justly afraid of Octavian, as she had wanted to impose her own son, Caesarion, as the rightful heir to Caesar while he was alive. However, neither Cleopatra nor Caesarion were acknowledged in Caesar's will and it would have been unlawful and unsustainable for Caesar to nominate Caesarion, to son of a foreign woman. The real shock, however, was that Octavian was favored above the front runner, Antony. Cleopatra's fleet was also in demand by Octavian and Antony, and Brutus and Cassius at this time. It was awkward for Cleopatra to have to show her colours so early in the fray. ...read more.


However, ultimately she failed to do all that she set out to do as Octavian eventually killed her children, took over Egypt and made it his personal providence. Legacy While she failed to complete her goals that she set out to, she managed to do the unthinking, bring Egypt into a powerful position in which they can oppose Rome. This was so unthinkable it was considered to be a non-issue, but Cleopatra used all the intelligence that she possessed and peaceful methods to bring this about. For this she is always remembered, and bought into a position of fame, as a woman to admire. Ancient and modern images and interpretations of Cleopatra VII Ancient Modern Pharsalia Roman Poet "Egypt's shame" "Fatal Beauty" "Wanton Daughter" Martin Bernal modern Chinese political history who claims Ancient Greece was heavily influenced by Afroasiatic "There is some doubt about the ethnicity of her grandmother who could have been Egyptian or Nubian" Horace Roman Poet "The queen ... Along with her polluted crew of Shamefully defile 'men" Joann Fletcher British Egyptologist "She was one of the most dynamic figures the world has ever seen" Propertius Latin Poet "indeed, the whore queen of sinful Canopus" Amy Crawford "The real Cleopatra had charisma and her sexiness stemmed from her intelligence" Flavius Josephus Jewish writer in Rome "Antony was now bewitched by his love to Cleopatra" "Cleopatra had put to death all her kindred till on one near her in blood remained alive" Edith Flamarion "They become lovers" "She captivated not one, but two Caesars and made another, one who many claim was the greatest of the three, tremble" "Cleopatra's strength and yet another mark of her intelligence" "political perceptions" Plutarch Greek Historian writing some time after the events according to eye witness accounts "The charm of her conversation" "Plato admits four sorts of flattery, but she had a thousand" "Antony was so captivated by her" "The last and crowning mischief that could befall him came in the love of Cleopatra ... He fell into that snare thus" Laracombe Teichgradeber "She was charming, intelligent, powerful" ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Other Historical Periods section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Other Historical Periods essays

  1. Revision Table - Tudor Rebellions

    Offers pardon and meeting - stall tactic. Askes and ringleaders sent to London. Executed. Commons pardoned. * Cumberland Rising - Bigod plans to capture Hull, Scarborough and Duke of Norfolk, act as mediator with govt. Failed, fled to Carlisle, was captured and executed. * Government agreed to negotiate with rebels.


    One example of how Eleanor was looked upon in these times by troubadours, and the public alike, is the following poem: "Were the world all mine From the sea to the Rhine I'd give it all away If the English Queen Would be mine for a day" (John Gillingham, The Life and Times of Richard I).

  1. what role did desmond tutu have in the role to end apartheid

    FW de Klerk says "My objective that day was to convince both our friends and our foes alike that we had made the paradigm shift," this was probably not that true. South africa was having great problems economically and was isolated from the rest of the world.

  2. Assess the political, social and cultural significance of Versailles in the reign of Louis ...

    Perhaps the most renowned and iconic room was the Hall of Mirrors, designed by Jules Hardouin-Mansard. Charles Le Brun's ceiling centrepiece pictures Louis in Roman armour but mantled like a French king, dedicated to the military victories of Louis. Louis would use this room daily as he walked from his "private" apartment to Mass.

  1. To What Extent Had Mussolini Established A Personal Dictatorship by 1928?

    Cesari Rossi was then traced back to member in the PNF and Ministry of Interior, the two men were known as Giovanni Marinelli and Aldo Finzi. Mussolini was questioned about this and he decided to evade the topic. Mussolini cracked under the pressure and evaded the Chamber for several days.

  2. Why did William win the Battle of Hastings?

    William also had better leadership skills than harold. Religion was extremely important in the 1066 in both norman and anglo saxon culture. William could not just demand support from his nobles, he had to convince them of his case.

  1. Gandhi was instrumental in India achieving its independence. Gandhi was able to procure Indias ...

    Britain realized that the violence would not stop until independence was granted to India. On May 1945 the British government announced that their intention was to grant Indian independence as soon as possible. While this event can not be classified as peaceful it worked to brake down the British.

  2. What Did Charlemagne Do While In Power As King?

    However, it remains unclear whether the decision derived from Charlemagne's own policy to enhance his position in his realm, or whether it was the pope's policy to commit Charlemagne more firmly to the defence of Italy and the pope himself against aggression from the Byzantine Empire, which still retained footholds in southern Italy and was sponsoring a Lombard pretender.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work