• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

notes on russia. from tsarism to communism

Extracts from this document...


NOTES ON RUSSIA: FROM TSARISM TO COMMUNISM. Russia's past --> unpredictable; dramatic changes, example: its revolution from an authoritarian monarchy to a communist dictatorship. In this article Edward Acton explains the role of "ordinary people" in the Russian revolution, the defeat of liberalism and the egression of Bolshevik power. Why Liberalism failed: � Social tensions: - Between peasants and landowners. * Peasants --> land should be distributed free of charge among those who worked it with their own hands. No compensation for landowners. * Landowners --> reject peasant demands, crush rural disorder and drastically reduce popular representation in the Duma. - Between workers and employers. * Workers --> resented their pitiful wage-rates and working conditions, long hours, lack of security and degrading treatment by managers. * Employers --> Tsarist repression to keep workers in their place, curtail trade union rights and uphold managerial authority. ...read more.


* The impact of the 1st WW on Russia and the way in which peasants, workers and soldiers reacted is essential to understand the success of the Bolsheviks in coming to power in October 1917. Explaining the Bolshevik Victory. � Effects of the 1st World War on Tsarism: - Military reversals --> soldiers refused to crush the disturbances; no support for Nich. II anymore. - Economic strain --> industry hit by repeated waves of strikes. Culminated in general strike and mass demonstrations. Incompetence of the regime and no legitimacy for Nich. II. Forced to abdicate in 1917. � Liberalism: - Formed a provisional government in 1917. - Lacked coercive power --> Liberal Gvt. was unable to use force to impose its will upon workers and peasants --> creation of a people's militia. - Policies of the liberal ministers --> they could not count upon the voluntary obedience of their new subjects for long. ...read more.


Lower classes: alternative political leader, respond to their demands. - Soldiers: Gvt. end war - Workers: Gvt. take their side against managers, job protection. - Peasants: Gvt. seize private land; take "care" of them. Bolsheviks had ability to articulate popular demands. --> Calling for peace, bread and land. Lenin's ideas --> Gvt. based on soviets of workers, peasants and soldiers. VERY POPULAR POLICIES. Transformation from Popular Rev. to Communist Dictatorship. Situation in October 1917: - Desperate economic & military situation. - Authoritarian strains in Bolsh. Ideology; arrogance from Rev. victory; corruption of power. Reasons for mass permission of dictatorship: o Break down of relationship between workers & peasants. (Transport chaos, falling value of roubles, etc) o Divisions within classes. (Difference between surplus and shortage of grain) o Industry collapsed. (Food, fuel &raw material shortage; less workforce; absenteeism, etc) o Russian Civil War (1918): White armies vs. Red armies. Lower classes had to choose. Reds won: Highly centralized ruling body -->strikes, massive peasant unrest, etc. It did not break dictatorship. -->silencing of opposition, ignoring of criticism, resorting to ruthless militaristic methods. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Stalins Russia, 1924-53 revision guide

    its citizens was to work for the greater good of the state; the 'state' being the leadership of Joseph Stalin. * Whilst this meant that industrial and agricultural resources could all be used for a single purpose, it also meant that individuality was suppressed and new ideas strangled.

  2. Paper 1 History Notes

    - State procurements rose: peasants yielded 39% in 1933 - 1933-34 famine: preventable if regime hadn't continued to export vast quantities of grain through terrible famine (5mill died in Ukraine alone) - Food rationing 1929-1935 - Disaster: no incentive for peasants, large imports, famine => Five-Year Plans * Aims -

  1. Why did Tsarism survive the 1905 revolution but not the 1917?

    The setbacks in the war highlighted the weaknesses of the Tsars rule and military leadership. Victories were costly and defeats were many. For example in June 16, the Brusilov offensive was an attempt to end the war on the eastern front and move troops to the west.

  2. Stalin Notes

    Stalin's Second Revolution; Modernizing Agriculture and Industry * Early in 1928 Stalin launched his program for collectivization. All privately held agricultural land was seized by the State and so food production could be done so more efficiently. The food was given to the workers who were needed for the industrialization process.

  1. AS Level Edexcel History Spain 1931-33 Revision Notes

    10,000 troops were killed and 4000 taken prisoner. One week later 7000 troops died in a separate incident. This was seen as a historic failure and brought down both the reputation of the army and trust people had instilled in it.

  2. The Impact of Stalins Leadership in the USSR, 1924 1941. Extensive notes

    On the following morning, Yezhov ?found? evidence saying Pyatnitsky had been an agent of the tsarist secret police. 3. During 1937-8, up to 74 military officials were sot for refusing to approve the execution of people whom they believed innocent.

  1. 1798 Irish Rebellion notes

    Around 50,000 rebels were involved in the uprising. 5. The four main centres of violence were central Leinster, eastern Ulster, County Wexford, and Connacht, the latter largely as a response to a French landing at Killala Bay, County Mayo, in late August.

  2. Stalinism and the transformation of Russia.

    In the Sovkhoz peasants worked directly for state and hence were paid wage directly from state. This ideology seemed hopeful for improvement for Russia?s economy although in practice this plan rapidly failed due to massive resistance from peasants to Stalin?s dicatorial approach to implementing collectivisation.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work