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AS and A Level: Other Historical Periods

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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Extended Essay: Bismarck and The Unification of Germany

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    this land provided her with valuable coal and iron resources. Prussia became quite rich due to trade with other countries and many of the smaller states realised that they could benefit from trade with each other. Trade between states was very difficult so to encourage trade, Prussia established a customs union in 1818. Member states would not have to pay taxes as goods were transported from one state to another. By 1836, this union was called the Zollverien and had 25 member states, equating to around 26 million people. As trade increased, ideas spread and the states realised that they benefited from closer contact with each other.

    • Word count: 2468
  2. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent was warfare between Britain and France the main contributory factor in French political instability 1689 - 1789?

    3 star(s)

    This caused the complete opposite of what Louis wanted to happen, rather than separating the German princes it caused them to unify, posing quite a formidable resistance to France. During this conflict in Germany, William III of Orange, who was Louis XIV's main rival in terms of power, invaded England with the intent of bringing the English into the war on the side of the coalition. Having successfully invaded English in 1689 and had them declare war on the French, William finally had the coalition he wanted.

    • Word count: 2768
  3. Research Paper; The Important Scientific Discoveries of the Renaissance: Medicine

    The understanding of ancient medical knowledge, as of other branches of science, was of course conditioned by social and cultural factors that changed over time.i For example, what began in Greece even before the Renaissance was where some of the oldest examples of Greek scientific writing and observations to base medical treatment were found; in medical treatises (written studies of a subject). Treatises like the ones about the "epidemics" of that time show that some authors were exceptionally aware medical observers who acquired notable ability to describe the signs and course of disease in individual patients.ii After taking in most of this new knowledge, Greek approaches to medicine began to include diverse and contradictory approaches.

    • Word count: 2929
  4. In this essay, I shall use primary sources to measure the short term significance of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1803-1806), focussing on documents to and from Thomas Jefferson.

    They will then be more willing to sell their land to the United States 'which the rapid increase of our numbers will call for'. In addition, the United States can 'undersell' individual traders, to become the main trading partner of the American Indians 'in the interests of commerce'. He says that tribes living in the north 'furnish great supplies of furs and peltry to the trade of another nation,' referring to the British (the old enemy) in Canada. However, whoever finds 'a continued navigation from [the Missouri's] source' would have the trading advantage.

    • Word count: 2478
  5. Ancient Discoveries: Troy. This report covers a brief historic background on the discovery of the Hisarlik site of Troy; Heinrich Schliemann (refer to figure 1.), its discoverer and his methodologies whilst excavating the site. It focuses primarily on his

    Using geographic clues from his copy of the Iliad, Schliemann discovered another hill near the village of Hisarlik that seemed to fit Homer's description. Schliemann's decision to excavate at Hisarlik was confirmed after incurring a preceded theory by British archaeologist, Frank Calvert that Hisarlik was indeed the ancient city of Troy. Calvert had been working on the mound for over 20 years and had acquired half of the hill but lacked in finances to pursue further investigations on the site, so he decided to confide his archaeological findings with Schliemann, gaining collaboration with the rich benefactor in uncovering Troy.

    • Word count: 2020
  6. To what extent was the Dutch Revolt in 1572 primarily caused by Religion?

    the economic crisis through forceful introduction of the Tenth Penny, implementing the "Blood Council" and his bad decision making which forced William of Orange to become Head of the revolt. I will also show that John Motley's interpretation has an inaccurate, dramatic approach - although there was great fear at the thought of a Spanish Inquisition, it was never effective in the Netherlands so therefore could not be the main cause. I disagree that religion was the main cause of the Dutch revolt.

    • Word count: 2073
  7. To what extent is it true to say the Provisional Government faced an impossible task?

    The sheer difficulty of the task facing the new Provisional Government was made worse upon its formation; when the Provisional Government was experiencing its first hours in power. The Provisional Government was made up entirely of middle and upper class members, most of whom were freemasons, meaning they were happy to help each other out but not so happy to look out for anybody outside their new government. This meant that they were not very democratic; a fault which immediately struck a chord in the hearts and minds of those Russians who had so apposed the Romanov Dynasty's autocratic rule

    • Word count: 2868
  8. Religion in Pompeii and Herculaneum

    The Capitoline Triad originally consisted of the three main gods of Rome; Jupiter, Mars and Quirino. However, Juno and Minerva eventually replaced Mars and Quirino. Every January 1st the citizens of Pompeii gathered at the northern end of the Forum to celebrate the Roman New Year. There they gathered at the temple of Jupiter (identified by the surviving inscriptions), a building set on a 10ft high foundationii, to watch the sacrifice of a bull to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, patron deity of Rome.

    • Word count: 2571
  9. ACCIDENTAL AND UNEXPECTED. DISCUSS THIS VERDICT ON THE FALL OF THE JULY MONARCHY IN 1848.

    The banquet movement began in July 1847 and was organised by the central committee of the seine. It was created in response to the lack of reform created by Louis Philippe, and his first minister Guizot. Many people within the chamber were dissatisfied, and also many who weren't, as they wished for the franchise to be extended to represent more of the bourgeoisie. It drew inspiration directly from the Anti-corn law league campaigning at the same time in Britain. There were about seventy banquets held overall; it began as a moderate movement run by the gauche dynastique, to display populous opposition to Guizot and Louis Philippe's government, and to champion the cause of electoral reform.

    • Word count: 2063
  10. Mideival Outline Essay

    was marked by economic decline although most historians believe that it was not as severe as previously thought. In addition, the economic decline in Western Europe started long before the deposition of the last Western Roman Emperor and even the beginning of the Migration Period. The Roman Empire fell into severe economic, political, social and spiritual crisis in the 3rd century which resulted in far-reaching changes that gradually led to emergence of medieval Europe. During the Crisis of the 3rd Century and the period that followed, the Roman Empire saw collapse of the traditional trade networks, decline of cities as economic and cultural centers, emergence of half-free tenant peasants (coloni)

    • Word count: 2365
  11. How were the lives of Civilians affected by the Second World War

    Lots of children were evacuated from cities to the countryside due to the heavy bombing. This created problems for both the evacuees and hosts. Children were split from their parents, often upsetting the child. Bernard Kops in Source 6 said it felt like being auctioned off and there was a worry of being separated from his sister. Lots of children would have been nervous and billeted into separate homes. This would often lead to children bed-wetting. Evacuees from upper class homes often found their lifestyle changed for the worse. Eleanor Stoddart in Source 8 said some people were put into dirty homes, with perhaps only a single bed with no running water to wash.

    • Word count: 2299
  12. Discuss the course and consequences of the Arab Israeli Conflict

    upon thousands of Arabs and Jewish people would be killed as two groups of people compete for a land to which both seemingly have an 'equal claim'. Furthermore, in the time up to, and during the Holocaust, the Jewish people would be scattered around Europe, many unable to leave and those who tried found themselves blocked at the border, unable to find sanctuary in Palestine. The Jewish people, would, by the end of the war, have suffered losses in great magnitude - over 6 million Jewish people due to the 'Final Solution' - mass-killings by the Nazis.

    • Word count: 2695
  13. Assess the factors that lead to the defeat of Boudica and the Iceni in the Battle of Watling Street

    The relative ease with which Boudica destroyed both Veralanium and Londinium, killing an estimated seventy to eighty thousand Romans, served to send create overconfidence through their forces.1 This consequently hampered the Celts judgment and decision making. Another contributing factor was the success which the Celts had at the beginning of the rebellion. After sacking Camuldunum (Colchester) Boudica's forces met the ninth Roman legion, led by Quintus Petillius Ceralis, who were attempting to relieve the siege of the city. The Celts destroyed what Tacitus estimated to be eighty percent of the legion and routing the remainder.2 Whilst such a victory may

    • Word count: 2512
  14. What was the short term significance of the Amritsar Massacre?

    It is possible to doubt the genuineness of its statement, as the Legislative Council needed to show that they were loyal to the British Empire in the hope of being granted more reforms. However, this statement is in accordance with the view of Chaudhuri, who says in his autobiography that educated Indians admitted that British rule "had also emancipated their minds, so that they could turn to social and religious reform and cultural creation".4 Gandhi also tolerated British rule, as he thought that the British values of justice and equality were valuable for India.5 Unfortunately for the British, all this respect for British rule collapsed because of the actions taken by General Dyer at Jallianwala Bagh.

    • Word count: 2176
  15. Gandhi was instrumental in India achieving its independence. Gandhi was able to procure Indias independence by unifying the people of India, by reforming the Indian National Congress and by staging peaceful protests against the British authority.

    Within India Gandhi felt boxed in. For this reason Gandhi traveled to South Africa in 1893. In South Africa Gandhi worked as a legal advisor for an Indian firm. Gandhi was appalled by the level of discrimination that he saw. While in South Africa he was once thrown out of a first class train for the sole reason that he was Indian even though he had a valid ticket. This situation sums up the treatment of Indians in South Africa. For the next twenty years in South Africa Gandhi fought for the civil rights of Indian immigrants.

    • Word count: 2189
  16. How successfully did the Labour governments of 1945-51 solve the social problems of the time?

    Labour failed to seriously alter British class structure (Robert Pearce) and indeed passed some measures which proved to worsen social divides, such as the grammar school system, according to Morrison. The Beveridge report made many recommendations for changes to British society, separating the problems into 'five giants,' Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness, although this distinction is misleading as his proposals were highly integrated as shown by the proposed National Insurance contributions which would pay for the many social changes Beveridge was suggesting.

    • Word count: 2132
  17. How effective was the leadership provided by prominent individual nationalists in Malaya?

    Ibrahim tried to convey to the Malays that their "good character" was being "damaged" by the invasion of their material life through foreign language, goods and labour. He called for Malay unity and the advancement of Malay interests, and gave speeches about Malay social degradation around the country. The sharp, analytical style of his speeches "served as a model for debate and discussion in the growing public sphere", (Milner, 1994) showing that the message of Ibrahim's speeches was received by the many throughout the country who heard him speak.

    • Word count: 2771
  18. The mystery of Stonehenge- theories about its construction and usage.

    Through centuries Stonehenge has been excavated, x-rayed, measured, and surveyed. Despite that many aspects of Stonehenge remain subject to debate. What is more, even though the stones that we can see today represent Stonehenge in ruin it still remains Britain's greatest national icon symbolizing mystery, power and endurance. No one is quite sure how old it is, who built it or what its function was. There are plenty of theories explaining the monument's function and history but very little is known for certain.

    • Word count: 2076
  19. Consider David Starkey(TM)s and Francis Pryor(TM)s respective versions of the nature and extent of Anglo " Saxon Settlement between AD 400 and 600. Which of them of you find the most persuasive and why?

    The second theory is invasion - again by Germanic tribes. In this interpretation there would be masses of Angles and Saxons who arrived by boat and started a violent conquest of the new lands. Initially they might have been invited in by the Britons as mercenaries, and these then sent back for more men before uprising against their masters, or they could have arrived independent of the local's knowledge. The third theory is that Britain was conquered by a small Germanic Elite.

    • Word count: 2944
  20. How valid is the view that short term causes were more important than long term causes in the appointment of Hitler as Chancellor in 1933?

    This allowed Hitler and his Nazi party to grow because they favoured the small parties, as it meant that they got deputies even if they only got a small share of the vote which meant they would then have more power as they could form part of the coalition government. The Weimar government was also made unpopular because of they were held culpable for the surrendering the war and signing of the treaty of Versailles, its subsequent harsh terms made governing even more difficult.

    • Word count: 2139
  21. The structures of the Soviet State were created by Lenin and abused by Stalin. Discuss.

    Historians believe there are "striking similarities"4 between Hitler's Nazism and Leninist/Stalinist Russia, as Stalin spoke of "Socialism in one country"5 and the Nazis were the National Socialist party of Germany. While the similarities in the policies of the Nazis and the Bolsheviks is clear, it is also clear that the differences between Lenin's and Stalin's methods of running Russia was the fact that many see Lenin's use of terror as justified due to the civil war threatening the very existence of the regime6, whilst Stalin's was for his own self-gain.

    • Word count: 2115
  22. Why Were Some Forms Of Nationalism More Successful Than Others In Achieving Concessions From The British Government In The Period 1800-1900?

    Key figures in the revolutionary movement included Robert Emmet in 1803, John Mitchel and Smith O'Brien, leaders of the Young Ireland movement. Abortive attempts in 1798 and 1803 failed to have much immediate effect, but these left a longer-term mark on Irish politics which led in part to the Young Ireland uprising of 1848 and the Fenian uprising of 1867. These two separate if sometimes overlapping ideologies provide the key to understanding the history of Irish Nationalism in the nineteenth century and furthermore in the last century also.

    • Word count: 2360
  23. Cities were the main driving force of the Reformation in Germany(TM) " explain whether you agree or disagree (15 marks)

    as the 95 thesis were first originally written in Latin). Although not all were able to understand the minutiae of 'the Priesthood of all Believers', many were able to grasp the concept of the anti-clerical message that accompanied it. The cities also inhabited the universities, where the word of God could be translated, therefore many scholars where living in the cities and could help spread the Lutheran ideas. The cities also contained the printing presses where the pamphlets, Lutheran rhymes and the Bible in the vernacular could be printed.

    • Word count: 2394
  24. To What Extent Was The South African War (1899 - 1902) A Capitalist War

    The discovery of rare minerals has been a major natural resource and economic boon to South Africa owing to their power on the global market, which remains significant through to present day South Africa. It was for this reason that the discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand (Transvaal) in 1886 and subsequent mining activities had such a vast impact upon the economy and society of South Africa.1 In fact, the seams of gold were so extensive and rich that the discovery eventually led to the construction of Johannesburg, the largest urban municipality in Southern Africa and the centre of the gold mining trade.

    • Word count: 2818

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent was the violence in Western society the MAIN reason for the deve1opment of the idea of Holy War?

    "In conclusion, violence in Western society was undoubtedly a contributory factor in the development of Holy War, but it was the cunning of the Catholic Church that created the final result. From successfully exploiting the contradictions found within the Old Testament, to glorifying warfare with the promise of the eternal reward, the Church tailored the concept of war in alignment with Christian tenets and ideals; an ideology that would come to form the bedrock of the Crusades. Kurt Shead MTG: C"

  • Assess to what extent was Louis XIVs foreign policy less successful after 1684.

    "In conclusion, the foreign policy in the latter half of Louis' reign was clearly less successful than pre-1684. In terms of achievements she had secured her status in Europe by acquiring the Spanish Succession, which ensured that she was no longer surrounded by Hapsburgs; Louis had built a Bourbon base in Western Europe which would secure and strengthen both France and Spain. He also left behind a legacy of unprecedented French supremacy during which France was arguably the most powerful country in the world. However, there were failures from his foreign policy as well. The North-Eastern and Eastern frontiers was yet again weakened by the loss of lands which he had worked so hard to acquire before 1684. Furthermore, he left his successor with a Europe united in hatred of France who wanted to curb French power and hegemony."

  • To what extent was strong leadership the main reason for the success of the First Crusade (1096-99)?

    "In conclusion, there are many reasons as to why the First Crusade was a success, but it was the disunity in the Muslim world that was the most crucial, as had the Muslims been unified, it is debatable whether the Crusaders would have ever made it to Jerusalem. Kurt Shead MTG: C"

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