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AS and A Level: Other Historical Periods

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 4
  1. How and why did the Bolsheviks gain power in 1917?

    It would be logically explained that this theory was aimed at having "men follow orders without question, rather than to have men who discuss and debate on them". Policy-wise, the Bolsheviks believed, like the writings of Marx had implied, that a revolution and complete power-seizure could only be achieved if started within the workforce of a country. As Lenin believed strongly in the ideals of the Bolsheviks, he used it as a basis of his political rallying, seeking to gain, through promises of land, equality and peace; the support of the working class (or peasants)

    • Word count: 3077
  2. How has the nature of leadership changed over the period 1790-1945?

    Leadership is just one small part of an at times fragmented picture, no matter how the propagandists attempt to depict it. More than any other of the recognized factors in the military success of failure, this one is inherently human, and while many of these human led advancements are inherently reactionary, in this case the personal element can provide a barrier to development; with attitudes, enshrined in a culture of historic reflection, proving to be the most difficult things to change.

    • Word count: 3237
  3. The cult of Stalin and the purges of the 1930(TM)s were two aspects of Stalin(TM)s determination to retain supreme power. How far do you agree with this opinion?

    Although Stalin gained a great deal of success via industrialisation, collectivisation and the five-year plans, he ultimately acquired many enemies due to the suffering and numerous deaths caused during these policies. Owing to Stalin's extreme tactics, party members began to oppose his policies and ultimately repudiated him, this included Sergei Kirov who until now had been devoted to Stalin. Stalin was all too aware of this mounting threat! Stalin viewed Kirov as his prot�g� and in 1926 he rewarded Kirov's loyalty by appointing him as Head of the Leningrad Party.

    • Word count: 3208
  4. What was the impact of the Norman Conquest

    Once England had been controlled William warranted an extensive survey to be carried out, similar to a census by a government of today. His royal officers held a public inquiry into the value of all homes and what they owned, and recorded all their data into what is known as the Domesday Book, which itself was divided into two parts - Little Domesday and Great Domesday. Surprisingly, it was prepared in the space of one year and was completed in 1086.

    • Word count: 3140
  5. chartism revision

    * Aimed to increase influence of "productive classes" and reduce "non productive classes" (non productive seen as landlords) Richard Brown- " The Charter that emerged was a very moderate document that restated the traditional radical demand for universal suffrage." Dorothy Thompson- "... while they held it, people saw the Charter as a liberating force which would affect all their lives, and not simply admit them in a formal way to full citizenship of the country." The origins of Chartism 1834 Event * February Formation of the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union [GNCTU] * March Sentence of seven years' transportation passed on six agricultural labourers from Tolpuddle, near Dorchester, for administering an illegal oath whilst forming a local branch of the GNCTU.

    • Word count: 4213
  6. How effectively did the design and decoration of the Parthenon suit its function?

    Propylaea It is positioned perfectly so the full unyielding flank is exposed for the spectator to look upon. The function of the temple to be a glorious tribute to Athena is proved by the positioning of the temple to have a prime point for the worshipers to gaze in utter awe at the greatest building to have ever been constructed at the time. To design and build it the architects Ictinus and Callicrates were brought in and also the famous sculpture Phidias. Phidias acted as the supervisor for all of the artistic works and architecture for the Parthenon and for the rest of the acropolis.

    • Word count: 3653
  7. The First English Civil War

    It is impossible rightly to understand the events of this most national of all English wars without some knowledge of the motive forces on both sides. On the side of the King were enlisted: The deep-seated loyalty which was the result of two centuries of effective royal protection; the pure cavalier spirit, foreshadowing the courtier era of Charles II, but still strongly tinged with the old feudal indiscipline; the militarism of an expert soldier nobility, well represented by Prince Rupert; and lastly a widespread mistrust of extreme Puritanism, which appeared unreasonable to the Viscount Falkland and other philosophic statesmen, and intolerable to every other class of Royalists.

    • Word count: 8758
  8. Revision Table - Tudor Rebellions

    * Ignored in some courts but accepted by Charles VIII King of France. * As part of peace treaty, C had to ask PW to leave the French court. * Was taken in by Margaret. She gave him support in his attempts to invade England. * Second attempt got him there, but on meeting Henry's army fled. * Captured and surrendered. * Execution of PW buts end to longest, weakest threats to a Tudor monarch. * Ends the final repercussions of the Wars of the Roses.

    • Word count: 3110
  9. A direct comparison of the role of central power and control during the late Tsarist and early Soviet period of Russia History

    Stalin in particular used his position to put the majority of power and control in his hands. The ideology of the Tsarist era was 'based on three principles of orthodoxy, autocracy and nationality,'2 the Communist model was once of 'democratic centralism,'3 where the power of the party was the key rather than the social structure or class. Both the Tsarist and the Soviet eras saw a large degree of centralised power, however the ideological basis of this power as a method of control is hardly comparable.

    • Word count: 3243
  10. South African Heritage - Where we come from?

    Many of the recognized black and indigenous heritage sites before 1989 were rock art sites. Source C shows how the mindset since 1989 has changed. Black and Indigenous heritage sites are now what make up the main chunk of South African heritage and they are reminders of how far we have come as a nation and how far we can go in the future. Activity 2 1) Study Sources D, E and F, and the information in the text. Explain how each of these sources show some of the controversies which surround who controls heritage. Refer to all three sources.

    • Word count: 3405
  11. Strategy in Cortes' conquest of Mexico

    Hassig argues these "flower wars" were in fact a type of imperial war with important strategic objectives. The Aztecs often engaged in "flower wars" with their strongest opponents, while reserving conquering wars for vulnerable targets. The Aztecs often directed their conquering wars against those weaker foes which happened to border the Aztecs' strongest "flower war" opponents. Once the stronger enemy was completely surronded and deprived of potential allies, as well as room to retreat, the "flower war" escalated to a full fledge war of conquest, with the Aztecs chipping away at the enemy's periphery until the noose completely tightened.

    • Word count: 3341
  12. To what extent is Arrian's praise of Alexander's leadership justified?

    In comparison to the other four surviving sources on Alexander, it is easy to understand why Arrian's is considered the most accurate. Plutarch, like Arrian portrays Alexander in a favourable light, however, some of it verges on the romantic, thus dismissing it as bias. Justin's work is widely regarded as unreliable and Curtius is also considered somewhat suspect. Although Diodorus contains valuable material, his dates are confused and his geography is inaccurate, thus respectively making Arrian's the most effective account of Arrian's expeditions The origins of Alexander's excellent skills as a leader can be traced right back to his impressive upbringing.

    • Word count: 3849
  13. To what extent could the Crusades be described as failure within the years 1095-1195?

    Coming from Central Asia, Seljuks at the beginning of the century entered into Arab controlled regions, where they were first used as mercenaries. Gradually, however, they became increasingly self-sufficient, having won in 1040-ies Iran and in 1055 Baghdad. Then the Seljuks began to expand the boundaries of their empire to the west, leading attack mainly on the Byzantine Empire. Decisive defeat of Byzantines at Manzikert in 1071 gave Seljuks the entrance to the coast of Aegean Sea, helped to conquer Syria and Palestine in 1078 and to take Jerusalem.

    • Word count: 3981
  14. In the context of India in the 1840s to 1947, how far can independence be accredited to Gandhis campaign of civil disobedience in the 1920s and 1930s?

    Such curtailments were regarded with great bitterness. This led to particular acts of unrest, in 1806 and in 1824 at Barrackpore. These smaller acts of unrest reflected growing discontent, which was present before Gandhi?s campaign of civil disobedience began. Social and cultural reform came slowly as the British attempted to westernize the Indian people. The British tried to undermine the Hindu religion, by banning local religious practices such as Sati, as well as English becoming the language of teaching in schools, after Bentinck?s reforms of 1828 to 1835.

    • Word count: 4144

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent was the violence in Western society the MAIN reason for the deve1opment of the idea of Holy War?

    "In conclusion, violence in Western society was undoubtedly a contributory factor in the development of Holy War, but it was the cunning of the Catholic Church that created the final result. From successfully exploiting the contradictions found within the Old Testament, to glorifying warfare with the promise of the eternal reward, the Church tailored the concept of war in alignment with Christian tenets and ideals; an ideology that would come to form the bedrock of the Crusades. Kurt Shead MTG: C"

  • Assess to what extent was Louis XIVs foreign policy less successful after 1684.

    "In conclusion, the foreign policy in the latter half of Louis' reign was clearly less successful than pre-1684. In terms of achievements she had secured her status in Europe by acquiring the Spanish Succession, which ensured that she was no longer surrounded by Hapsburgs; Louis had built a Bourbon base in Western Europe which would secure and strengthen both France and Spain. He also left behind a legacy of unprecedented French supremacy during which France was arguably the most powerful country in the world. However, there were failures from his foreign policy as well. The North-Eastern and Eastern frontiers was yet again weakened by the loss of lands which he had worked so hard to acquire before 1684. Furthermore, he left his successor with a Europe united in hatred of France who wanted to curb French power and hegemony."

  • To what extent was strong leadership the main reason for the success of the First Crusade (1096-99)?

    "In conclusion, there are many reasons as to why the First Crusade was a success, but it was the disunity in the Muslim world that was the most crucial, as had the Muslims been unified, it is debatable whether the Crusaders would have ever made it to Jerusalem. Kurt Shead MTG: C"

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