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AS and A Level: Other Historical Periods

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  1. To what extent is it true to say the Provisional Government faced an impossible task?

    The sheer difficulty of the task facing the new Provisional Government was made worse upon its formation; when the Provisional Government was experiencing its first hours in power. The Provisional Government was made up entirely of middle and upper class members, most of whom were freemasons, meaning they were happy to help each other out but not so happy to look out for anybody outside their new government. This meant that they were not very democratic; a fault which immediately struck a chord in the hearts and minds of those Russians who had so apposed the Romanov Dynasty's autocratic rule

    • Word count: 2868
  2. Short description of Epic of Gilgamesh

    Then Humbaba starts begging Enkidu to have Gilgamesh spare his life. But that was a no go, Enkidu pretty much told Gilgamesh to hurry up so the gods wouldn't show up and stop him. He also told Gilgamesh that if he killed Humbaba he would be infamous. Then the battle with the Bull of Heaven was next. This battle happened because Gilgamesh insulted the princess goddess Ishtar after she had made sexual advances toward him. He reminded her of two other mortal lovers she had had and the fate they recieved for loving her.

    • Word count: 764
  3. The Movie Alexander the Great

    Philip then divorces Olympias because of her unfaithfulness and marries his mistress, Eurydice, who is the niece of one of his generals Attlaus. This ends up causing problems between Alexander and his father because if they have a son it would be more likely to become king since Alexander is only half Macedonian, and that child would be full blood Macedonian. Also, because Attalaus called Alexander a bastard, which caused a fight and Philip went at his son with a knife.

    • Word count: 1495
  4. Ancient Societies, Sites and Sources The City of Rome

    Much of the building foundations of the Forum remain in Rome today, a testimony to the grandeur of Rome. In 509 BC after the Kings of Rome were overthrown and the Republican government was set up, the Forum became the seat of power. The Regia palace became the residence of the Pontifex Maximus. Citizens assembled to vote in the Comitium, and nearby in the Curia (or Senate House) the Senate resided. The original Curia was built in a different location, but burnt down on four separate occasions, and after a fire in 53 BC Caesar rebuilt the Curia in the Forum.

    • Word count: 998
  5. Religion in Pompeii and Herculaneum

    The Capitoline Triad originally consisted of the three main gods of Rome; Jupiter, Mars and Quirino. However, Juno and Minerva eventually replaced Mars and Quirino. Every January 1st the citizens of Pompeii gathered at the northern end of the Forum to celebrate the Roman New Year. There they gathered at the temple of Jupiter (identified by the surviving inscriptions), a building set on a 10ft high foundationii, to watch the sacrifice of a bull to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, patron deity of Rome.

    • Word count: 2571
  6. Louis XIV won the Dutch War but lost the peace. Discuss

    However, if Louis motive was to strengthen his borders, then the Dutch War could also be seen as a failure, as the Dutch still remained a threat as their country wasn't totally conquered. Also, Amsterdam was never captured by Louis, which could be seen as a failure as the capital city was still in the power of the Dutch. Secondly, another motive for Louis invading the Dutch could be because the Dutch are Republican and Protestant. Under the reign of Louis XIV, France was a very Catholic country, which was evident as Louis himself was named the "Sun King" and the "Most Catholic King".

    • Word count: 1134
  7. ACCIDENTAL AND UNEXPECTED. DISCUSS THIS VERDICT ON THE FALL OF THE JULY MONARCHY IN 1848.

    The banquet movement began in July 1847 and was organised by the central committee of the seine. It was created in response to the lack of reform created by Louis Philippe, and his first minister Guizot. Many people within the chamber were dissatisfied, and also many who weren't, as they wished for the franchise to be extended to represent more of the bourgeoisie. It drew inspiration directly from the Anti-corn law league campaigning at the same time in Britain. There were about seventy banquets held overall; it began as a moderate movement run by the gauche dynastique, to display populous opposition to Guizot and Louis Philippe's government, and to champion the cause of electoral reform.

    • Word count: 2063
  8. Do Historians agree that the WSPU was an elitist, anti-male organisation?

    This in turn would lead the WSPU in becoming an elitist organisation. The organisation soon after would only gain upper class women members. This shows that the organisation would have been elitist because the women they would have wanted in the organisation were upper class and they would have been treated better than the working class women. The fact that they only recruited upper class women could be contradicted because they started off in a poor area, so the women recruited would have been working class as opposed to upper class.

    • Word count: 993
  9. menhotep IV changed his name Akhenaten and began a revolutionary period in Egyptian history called the Amarna Period.[1] Although this period lasted only a relatively short time, it had a profound impact on Egyptian civilisation.

    As a young child Akhenaten was raised in a traditional Ancient Egyptian manner and observed religious rituals to the god Amon. When Akhenaten rose to crown prince and he was subjected to the influences that eventually caused him to attempt to altar Egyptian religion. By the time of Akhenaten's reign, the god Amen had risen to such a high status that the priests of Amen had become even more wealthy and powerful than the pharaohs.2 The reasons for Akhenaten's revolution still remain a mystery but until further evidence can be uncovered, it will be impossible to know just what motivated his unusual behaviour.

    • Word count: 880
  10. The Pendle Witches - A Story of Witchcraft and Revenge

    This being because the tale was well documented and the tale was made a book, The Wonderful Discoverie of Witches in the Countie of Lancaster. England wasn't a country that devoted a lot of resources to persecuting accused witches through the courts compared with most. England was reasonably safe for those who were either thought to practice magical arts, or who allowed people to think they did. All over mainland Europe, widespread torture and execution of witches was underway at this time, while in England many cases never even made it to the courts, apparently since a lot of magistrates simply didn't believe in witchcraft or black magic.

    • Word count: 1317
  11. How far was the Russo-Japanese war responsible for the 1905 revolution

    Nicholas' adviser was more confident than he was; furthermore he was easily influenced by the 10 member of his ministerial council showing that he shied away from responsibility. All of this contributed to a rebellion atmosphere as opposition such as the Liberals did not think it was right to have a Tsar who could not even maintain ultimate power which essentially defeats the point of the tsar. institutional government. He denied basic freedom such as free press , freedom to form national parties , no concessions to nationalities any protests were repressed.

    • Word count: 1236
  12. Mideival Outline Essay

    was marked by economic decline although most historians believe that it was not as severe as previously thought. In addition, the economic decline in Western Europe started long before the deposition of the last Western Roman Emperor and even the beginning of the Migration Period. The Roman Empire fell into severe economic, political, social and spiritual crisis in the 3rd century which resulted in far-reaching changes that gradually led to emergence of medieval Europe. During the Crisis of the 3rd Century and the period that followed, the Roman Empire saw collapse of the traditional trade networks, decline of cities as economic and cultural centers, emergence of half-free tenant peasants (coloni)

    • Word count: 2365
  13. To what extent did the lack of Muslim unity assist the Crusaders in winning their victories?

    The religious split was a main element between the Fatimid Muslims and Abbasid Muslims, which often meant that they would rather help the enemy of their enemy, rather than to help each other, even when concerning the crusaders, who they saw as ally concerning the religious rift between the Turks. As the crusaders marched across Asia Minor, there is little attack from Muslim Turks. The weaker rulers did not attempt an attack as the strong reputation that the Crusaders had gain from battles and victories such of that at Dorylaeum, made it very off putting.

    • Word count: 934
  14. Assess the contribution made by the Jesuits to the Catholic Revival 1545-1600

    When these two concepts overlapped, the notion emerged whereby spiritual satisfaction could be expressed in a methodical way of life. The Jesuits were a vehicle through which this could happen. After the Council of Trent the Catholic Church, armed with its Tridentine decrees, placed renewed emphasis on continuous prayer, self-control and improvement, and particularly charity. The Church was looking for a more practical religion where people could be actively involved, as argued by John Bossy. An organisation that was a manifestation of these developments were the Jesuits.

    • Word count: 873
  15. What makes a great civilisation

    Firstly, a feature of a great civilisation is good geographical location. Good geographical location is synonymous with proximity to water. With a constant water source, sufficient food is available. This is possible because the water source provides water and silt for the crops which will enable the crops to grow healthily. Food and water can also be obtained from the water source. An example to illustrate this will be the Egyptian civilization. It is located beside the Nile River and the Egyptians obtain water from the Nile River to irrigate their crops which will provide abundant food.

    • Word count: 510
  16. The most important pre-requisite for a civilization to reach its Golden Age

    Having a strong leader in the government will ensure the civilization's safety against threats. Thus, the citizens will feel safe and peaceful when there is no fear of any danger coming their way. Hence, the people of the civilization will have no unrest and can be at peace. When they are at peace, artists and scientists can then focus their time on the arts and sciences, developing it and thus helping the civilization progress into its golden age. A case in point would be the Gupta Dynasty, with good leaders such as Chandra Gupta I, Samudra Gupta and Chandra Gupta II, where Samudra was not only a good military leader, but he was also a patron of the arts, promoting it and helping the Gupta civilization thrive during its Golden Age.

    • Word count: 1013
  17. To what extent was Napoleon a Dictator

    After centralising power he then sets about by strengthening his power. He increased personal power through his control of an enlarged senate, controlling everything not controlled by the Constitution, so Napoleon's power by this point is almost absolute. He tops things off when he purged the Tribunate in 1802 as it criticised Code Napoleon, which was a threat to Napoleon's absolute power, thus had its powers taken away. Proof of Napoleon's new power was the Duc d'Enghien who was judicially murdered because he was found guilty of conspiracy, but he was kidnapped from neutral ground.

    • Word count: 1159
  18. Africans Americans gained legal civil rights between 1865 and 1870 through constitutional amendments and acts of Congress; however, in practice some of these rights did not materialise and by 1877 they were starting to lose what rights they had.To what ex

    However, the Thirteenth Amendment was more de jure than de facto. Many blacks didn't have money as they weren't given jobs due to lack of skills and education. This also meant they couldn't travel as money was needed here too. They had no where to go. There was no real way of enforcing the law. The Fourteenth Amendment gave all freed blacks US citizenship and equal protection under the law. This helped blacks as it established the principle and made them citizens.

    • Word count: 872
  19. How far and why did black Americans gain civil rights?

    Also, he did what other black leaders had failed to do, which was reaching out to the lower class African Americans. Furthermore, he formed his own civil rights movement, the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference). The SCLC helped form campaigns for civil rights. The SCLC carried out many protests across many cities in the US. The Birmingham, Alabama, and the Washington D.C. protests in 1963 were the most notable. On the 3rd April, King and the SCLC came to Birmingham, protesting about segregation and racism.

    • Word count: 946
  20. Why did more formal segregation of African Americans develop in the south after Reconstruction?

    After 1891 the regulations expanded to include segregation in cinemas and theatres, stores, parks, cemeteries, swimming pools, playgrounds. Sports teams were also segregated, regardless of the fact that the majority of teams wanted the top players not players of the same race. The segregation laws arose as a result of fear of African Americans being able to be equal to whites. Many white Southerners saw blacks as financial opponents in the employment market, as many blacks were being given jobs because of they were willing to work for a lower wage.

    • Word count: 800
  21. Why did Britain not establish an independant Palestine jointly ruled by Arabs and Jews

    This promise was further reiterated by General Allenby 's declaration in December 1917 when occupying Palestine stated "The object of war in the East on the part of Great Britain was the complete and final liberation of all peoples formerly oppressed by the Turks and the establishment of national governments". Hence the Arabs expected the acknowledgement and help of Britain in creating an Arab independent state. Yet matters were complicated with the Balfour Declaration in December 1917. This document written by Arthur Balfour, foreign Secretary, to Lord Walter Rothchild , leader of the British Jewish Community, stated that the British

    • Word count: 1803
  22. Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798

    This issue developed because the Republicans believed that the Alien and Sedition Acts violated rights guaranteed by the Bill of Rights, including the freedom of speech and freedom of press. However, the process of deciding on the constitutionality of federal laws was as yet undefined and thus, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison decided that the state legislatures should have that power. They drew up the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, which stated that the Constitution was a compact between the states and the central government and that when the central government violates the contract, the states have the right to judge the constitutionality of the laws being passed.

    • Word count: 922
  23. To what extent was the Northern Renaissance influenced by the Italian Renaissance

    This special relationship is shown in the number of French royalties that married into the Medici family, who extended their reach from Florence into the Papacy in Rome. The papacy was very open to Northern Europe and frequently sent diplomats and ambassadors to these Catholic countries; Pioggio, a Florentine humanist, and Piccolomini, later Pope Pius II, both served as papal ambassadors in the Low Countries, this would influence the Northern Renaissance in the spread of Italian humanist ideas. Above all, the pilgrimages to Rome that many Catholic underwent allowed Northern Europe to exchange a great amount of ideas - Catherine

    • Word count: 1216
  24. Economic problems were the main reason the governments of the Weimar era failed Discuss.

    Many of the resource rich area's such as Rhineland were taken from the Germans resulting in large rates of unemployment and unrest. In Germany at this time striking workers were paid by the state therefore the state had to pay out mass amounts of money for the thousands of striking workers. The damage done to Germany's economic state because of the reparations they were forced to pay, discouraged market loans, and Germany made a futile attempt to pay back these reparations and fix the economic crisis through Quantative easing.

    • Word count: 682
  25. Was the Great War Responsible for the Downfall of the Romanovs?

    Also, his stubbornness and refusal to listen to reason. One of the most influential reasons for the downfall of the Romanov dynasty is undeniably the Great War. The war caused problems both locally, and on the outskirts of Russia where the war was being fought. Russia's economy suffered greatly, the rouble was taken off of the gold standard and inflation caused the prices for commodities such as food and engine fuel to rise rapidly, a 400% increase. The transport system, suffered also, the Trans-Siberian railway system and other major rail lines were disrupted by a surge of immigrant workers and were put under immense strain to transport thousands of soldiers and crates full of supplies to the front lines.

    • Word count: 998

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