• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19
  20. 20
    20
  21. 21
    21
  22. 22
    22
  23. 23
    23
  24. 24
    24
  25. 25
    25
  26. 26
    26
  27. 27
    27
  28. 28
    28
  29. 29
    29
  30. 30
    30

Reasons for Napoleon's Success (to 1807).

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Reasons for Napoleon's Success(to 1807) a) Napoleon's Strength - The Military Aspect i) Napoleon's Qualities of Leadership ii) The Changing Nature of War iii) The Development of the Grand Armee iv) The Development of Winning Tactics v) Weapons Training in the Grande Armee vi) Napoleon's Strategic Planning vii) Napoleon's Generalship b) Napoleon's Strength - the Civil Aspect c) The Enemies' Weakness - Allied Disunity i) The Second Coalition 1799 ii) The Third Coalition 1805 a) Napoleon's Strength - The Military Aspect i) Napoleon's Qualities of Leadership * One of Napoleon's great strengths as leader was the devotion of his men. His soldiers adored him. * Despite his generally unprepossessing appearance, when he wished to charm he could quickly win over anyone he met, however initially hostile they might be. Within a couple of days he had completely captivated the officers and crew of Bellerophon taking him to St. Helena in 1815, much alarming the British government. * One Admiral at that time exclaimed, "If he had an obtained an interview with His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, in half an hour they would have been the best friends in England!" * His contemporaries had no doubt about the charismatic quality of leadership. His great adversary Wellington said to him that the moral effect of his presence in the field and worth an additional force of 40,000 men to the French army. This he ascribed to Napoleon's dual position as both head of state and commander-in-chief, which gave him unparalleled control over events, but also to his great personal popularity with the army. * One of Napoleon's own generals explained this popularity by saying that it "was by familiarities that the Emperor made his soldiers adore him, but it was a means available to only to a commander whom frequent victories had made illustrious; any other general would have injured his reputation by it". ...read more.

Middle

In October her army was defeated at Ulm and she made a separate peace with France. * Prussia, resentful of pressure from Napoleon to supply him with troops and to join the Continental Blockade against Britain, eventually declared was on France in August 1806. However, her adherence to the coalition was as short-lived as Austria's had been. Her army was totally defeated in October at the twin battles of Jena-Auerstadt. The most powerful army of the Ancien regime had been destroyed by Napoleon's new style warfare. * Russia, Britain's other ally, had been involved in a distracting war with the Ottoman Empire by the end of 1806. Taking advantage of this, Napoleon launched an attack through Poland, and in the spring in 1807 won a decisive victory over the Russians at Friedland. * Afterwards he was able to exploit the tsar's resentment over the inactivity of Britain and Austria and the poor military showing by Prussia during 1806. At their private meetings at Tilsit in June 1807 Napoleon entirely captivated Alexander, who formally allied himself with France. * Prussia and Austria were left to the mercy of Napoleon. Both emerged greatly weakened from the peace settlement, losing influence and territory and being burdened with the payment of heavy war indemnities to France. * The Third Coalition was dead. Only Britain, which since 1805 had played no part in Europe other than that of paymaster, still remained at war with France. Once again, Napoleon ended had succeeded admirably in playing on divisions between the allies, and then in picking them off one by one. Reasons for Napoleon's Decline and Fall (1808-15) a) The Military Situation b) The Allies United i) The Fourth Coalition 1813-15 ii) Final Defeat and the end of Napoleonic Europe In the final campaign against Napoleon, France's military difficulties were exposed. What were the reasons? * The Spanish and Russian 'disasters' had sapped morale. ...read more.

Conclusion

* After Napoleon's final abdication and exile in June, the second Treaty of Paris (November 1815) reduced the frontiers of France still further to those of 1790. * There remained the problem of the territories of the French Empire and of the satellite states. Each of the allies had different views on what should be done and great power unity was constantly threatened by suspicion and disagreement. However, it was accepted by all the allies that France needed to be contained within her revised frontiers and that this could be best done by surrounding her with a ring of buffer states - not the weak and feeble neighbours who had collapsed in 1792-3, but strong, potentially hostile states would prevent any future French aggression. * To the south, Austrian influence was restored in northern Italy in Lombardy and Venice, and a newly strengthened kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont (including nice, Genoa and Savoy) guarded the Italian frontier with France; to the north, Belgium was united with an independent Holland behind a fortified frontier with France; while to the east, Switzerland's guaranteed independence barred the way, as did the Rhinelands, now a part of Prussia. * In this way the frontiers which France had threatened mostly often during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were blocked off. * As far s the satellite states were concerned it was generally, though not completely, conservative settlement. In Italy, Naples was returned to Bourbon rule and the other states were restored to their pre-1796 boundaries and mostly to their former ruling families. * The Papal States were returned to the Pope. In Germany, Napoleon's general suppression of a large number of minor German states was confirmed and 41 (later reduced to 38) sovereign states were brought together in a new German Confederation, whose borders were not dissimilar to those of the old Holy Roman Empire. * Russia acquired most of the Poland and Spain was returned to Bourbon rule. * The map of Europe again looked much the same as it had done in the eighteenth century, the Napoleonic Empire had disappeared. - 1 - ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Did napoleon betray the Revolution?

    I will be considering many of those fundamental principles which guided most of these revolutionaries. In general, these principles include equal treatment under the law, one degree or another of centralization of the government, elimination of feudal rights, religious tolerance and careers open to talent not birth.

  2. To what extent had Napoleon betrayed the French Revolution in his domestic policy by ...

    However, giving certain people land and reintroducing slavery was a complete contradiction of this. Considering he did support education in a very efficient way and he did make sure Louis the 18th did not return, there were some decisions which Napoleon made which supported the revolution.

  1. To what extent was Napoleon an enlightened despot?

    "Napoleon directly contradicted the fundamental principle of popular sovereignty..." Wright Napoleon constantly paid, as Ellis terms it, 'lip service' to universal manhood suffrage. The Constitution employed 3 successive rounds of tenths as its selection procedure, which has been described as 'inefficient and corrupt' by Ellis. The election procedure closely resembled the ancient regime in its methods, with the system

  2. Stalins Russia, 1924-53 revision guide

    and Pudovkin were ostracised and the composers Shostakovich and Prokofiev attacked in February 1948 for writing elitist and 'non Russian' music. * The post war era was one of state sponsored xenophobia and Russian chauvinism, even after Zhdanov's death in 1948, all forms of art and culture considered to be anti-Russian were denounced.

  1. Did Napoleon betray the French Revolution?

    But, the question is, why was he not checked by his own subjects? After all, the France of 1799 to 1815 was hardly afraid of conspiracies, revolts or even assassinations. So, if he was an absolute shame to what the Revolutionary France had stood for, why was he not opposed?

  2. How did Napoleon maintain control in France between in 1799-1814?

    All these changes gave Napoleon perfect power to remove any opposition, as he had influence of appointment of judges and the Supreme Court. Napoleon also used the police, which monitored public opinion, used a network of spies and informants. Napoleon also had his own secret police so that he had

  1. AS Level Edexcel History Spain 1931-33 Revision Notes

    * Rights for small tenant farmers were protected. Law of municipal boundaries in May 1931 was enacted. This required landowners to offer jobs to those living within their municipality before important migrant workers. Often importing workers for short-term work would result in cheaper labour.

  2. To what extent was Napoleon nothing more than a dictator?

    * Checks on central power, standing committees: Although the Senate was the main instrument to Napoleon?s personal power, there were various other governmental bodies which could provide checks on Napoleon. Both the Tribunate and the Legislature were elected by the people of France, the latter could vote on all legislation

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work