• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17
  18. 18
    18
  19. 19
    19
  20. 20
    20
  21. 21
    21
  22. 22
    22
  23. 23
    23
  24. 24
    24
  25. 25
    25
  26. 26
    26
  27. 27
    27
  28. 28
    28
  29. 29
    29
  30. 30
    30

Reasons for Napoleon's Success (to 1807).

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Reasons for Napoleon's Success(to 1807) a) Napoleon's Strength - The Military Aspect i) Napoleon's Qualities of Leadership ii) The Changing Nature of War iii) The Development of the Grand Armee iv) The Development of Winning Tactics v) Weapons Training in the Grande Armee vi) Napoleon's Strategic Planning vii) Napoleon's Generalship b) Napoleon's Strength - the Civil Aspect c) The Enemies' Weakness - Allied Disunity i) The Second Coalition 1799 ii) The Third Coalition 1805 a) Napoleon's Strength - The Military Aspect i) Napoleon's Qualities of Leadership * One of Napoleon's great strengths as leader was the devotion of his men. His soldiers adored him. * Despite his generally unprepossessing appearance, when he wished to charm he could quickly win over anyone he met, however initially hostile they might be. Within a couple of days he had completely captivated the officers and crew of Bellerophon taking him to St. Helena in 1815, much alarming the British government. * One Admiral at that time exclaimed, "If he had an obtained an interview with His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, in half an hour they would have been the best friends in England!" * His contemporaries had no doubt about the charismatic quality of leadership. His great adversary Wellington said to him that the moral effect of his presence in the field and worth an additional force of 40,000 men to the French army. This he ascribed to Napoleon's dual position as both head of state and commander-in-chief, which gave him unparalleled control over events, but also to his great personal popularity with the army. * One of Napoleon's own generals explained this popularity by saying that it "was by familiarities that the Emperor made his soldiers adore him, but it was a means available to only to a commander whom frequent victories had made illustrious; any other general would have injured his reputation by it". ...read more.

Middle

In October her army was defeated at Ulm and she made a separate peace with France. * Prussia, resentful of pressure from Napoleon to supply him with troops and to join the Continental Blockade against Britain, eventually declared was on France in August 1806. However, her adherence to the coalition was as short-lived as Austria's had been. Her army was totally defeated in October at the twin battles of Jena-Auerstadt. The most powerful army of the Ancien regime had been destroyed by Napoleon's new style warfare. * Russia, Britain's other ally, had been involved in a distracting war with the Ottoman Empire by the end of 1806. Taking advantage of this, Napoleon launched an attack through Poland, and in the spring in 1807 won a decisive victory over the Russians at Friedland. * Afterwards he was able to exploit the tsar's resentment over the inactivity of Britain and Austria and the poor military showing by Prussia during 1806. At their private meetings at Tilsit in June 1807 Napoleon entirely captivated Alexander, who formally allied himself with France. * Prussia and Austria were left to the mercy of Napoleon. Both emerged greatly weakened from the peace settlement, losing influence and territory and being burdened with the payment of heavy war indemnities to France. * The Third Coalition was dead. Only Britain, which since 1805 had played no part in Europe other than that of paymaster, still remained at war with France. Once again, Napoleon ended had succeeded admirably in playing on divisions between the allies, and then in picking them off one by one. Reasons for Napoleon's Decline and Fall (1808-15) a) The Military Situation b) The Allies United i) The Fourth Coalition 1813-15 ii) Final Defeat and the end of Napoleonic Europe In the final campaign against Napoleon, France's military difficulties were exposed. What were the reasons? * The Spanish and Russian 'disasters' had sapped morale. ...read more.

Conclusion

* After Napoleon's final abdication and exile in June, the second Treaty of Paris (November 1815) reduced the frontiers of France still further to those of 1790. * There remained the problem of the territories of the French Empire and of the satellite states. Each of the allies had different views on what should be done and great power unity was constantly threatened by suspicion and disagreement. However, it was accepted by all the allies that France needed to be contained within her revised frontiers and that this could be best done by surrounding her with a ring of buffer states - not the weak and feeble neighbours who had collapsed in 1792-3, but strong, potentially hostile states would prevent any future French aggression. * To the south, Austrian influence was restored in northern Italy in Lombardy and Venice, and a newly strengthened kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont (including nice, Genoa and Savoy) guarded the Italian frontier with France; to the north, Belgium was united with an independent Holland behind a fortified frontier with France; while to the east, Switzerland's guaranteed independence barred the way, as did the Rhinelands, now a part of Prussia. * In this way the frontiers which France had threatened mostly often during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were blocked off. * As far s the satellite states were concerned it was generally, though not completely, conservative settlement. In Italy, Naples was returned to Bourbon rule and the other states were restored to their pre-1796 boundaries and mostly to their former ruling families. * The Papal States were returned to the Pope. In Germany, Napoleon's general suppression of a large number of minor German states was confirmed and 41 (later reduced to 38) sovereign states were brought together in a new German Confederation, whose borders were not dissimilar to those of the old Holy Roman Empire. * Russia acquired most of the Poland and Spain was returned to Bourbon rule. * The map of Europe again looked much the same as it had done in the eighteenth century, the Napoleonic Empire had disappeared. - 1 - ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. How did Napoleon maintain control in France between in 1799-1814?

    Napoleon also appointed Prefects for each department which was important as it made a connection between local and central government and Napoleon made the prefects responsible for propaganda, education and conscription within each region, so Napoleon could make sure that he kept his support through out France.

  2. To what extent was Napoleon an enlightened despot?

    While Napoleon can be seen to have promoted education, his belief that everyday people need simply 'moral education', shows that his concerns lay with the few and not the many. Napoleon only promoted education to the sons of the wealthy and the military, and even then this was purely at

  1. Did napoleon betray the Revolution?

    By the "Revolution" do we mean that of Barnave, or of Mirabeau, or Lafayette, or Brissot, or Danton, or Robespierre, or Hebert, or Tallien, of Babeuf, or Barras? All of these were men of the Revolution, yet they all held differing conceptions of what that "Revolution" was.

  2. To what extent had Napoleon betrayed the French Revolution in his domestic policy by ...

    irresponsible use of the Country's money, but it was just widening the gaps in French society even more at that time. This really is a great betrayal of the core of the revolution, as a main point was to abolish Feudalism.

  1. Why Did Napoleon fall from Power in 1814?

    Napoleon had left France with 600,000 troops, and less than 100,000 would eventually return. Due to Napoleons' failure in the invasion of Russia, his fall from power was hastened, as it contributed to the decline of his international and internal authority and control.

  2. Stalins Russia, 1924-53 revision guide

    * However it was not only perceived 'enemies of the Soviet Union' that suffered at the hands of Stalin. Purging was the means by which he ruled and this also applied to those closest to him. * After the war the wife of Molotov, the Foreign Minister, was arrested and

  1. Assess the effectiveness of Napoleon III's foreign policy. How did his foreign policy affect ...

    Furthermore, he burdened the economy of France with the cost of an expensive and unproductive war. To conclude, his foreign policy in Mexico Campaign was undoubtedly ineffective in achieving his aims. His foreign policy in Austro-Prussian War also proved ineffective.

  2. To what extent was Napoleon nothing more than a dictator?

    Dictatorial * While Napoleon?s government appeared somewhat liberal in its application democracy, this was merely a facade to a system centralised around the power of Napoleon. * Suffrage, insignificant vote: Despite providing every Frenchman over the age of 21 with a vote, the principle of popular sovereignty was in reality weak, especially after 1801.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work