• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Revision notes - Russia to 1924

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Russia to 1917 Russia was the most backward of the 19th century major powers (had little industry, an autocratic gov. w/ no constitution and mainly an illiterate peasant pop.) Czar Alexander II (1855-1881): TSAR LIBERATOR then turns reactionary o Brought the Crimean War (against Franco-British forces) to an end. o Instituted ? Liberalization? processes o Edict of Emancipation (1861): peasants had no obligations to nobles / peasants were given 50% of the agric. land / the nobles were compensated through taxes for the loss of land / the commune (Mir) became a basis for tax collection & distribution of land o The establishment of the Zemstov, which was elected local councils with the resp. for collecting taxes, building projects, levying rates? o Trial by jury (in public) was introduced / censorship lessened o Town councils were established (1870) o The army was reformed (conscription for all classes ? 1870), service time was reduced, and training and education facilities were improved. o The national budget became subject to audit and transparency / a state bank was established. (transparency was not extended to the national gov. and the Czar remained an autocrat) o Social protest: o The Populist (mainly students and intellectuals) / in 1866 a student attempted to assassinate the Czar ? ...read more.

Middle

* The Czar made no move towards political change * The army remained loyal / this was not to be in 1917 * The Duma only had limited power (couldn?t initiate constitutional change / could be suspended by the Czar) * The Duma was not fully democratic * The creation of the Duma split the opposition: Constitutional Democrats (wanted full constitutional gov.) vs. Octobrists (satisfied w/ the October Manifesto) Peter Stolypin (1906-11) (Prime Minister) o Abolished payments by peasants for their gain in land from the nobles o Introduced low interest loans for peasants (so they could buy land) o Tried to establish a middle class of peasants loyal to the Czar o Firm against non-parliamentary opposition o Assassinated in Sept. 1911 The Russian Revolutions of 1917 Reasons for Rev. of March 1917: o Defeat of Russia following entry in WWI o Some argue that Rev. was inevitable regardless of WWI (terrible living standards) o Incompetence of the Czar o Corrupt and inefficient Gov. o Weak ruler (Nicholas II) o Rasputin damage the reputation of the royal family in the eyes of other nobles (he was seen to be the de facto ruler of the country) o Food shortages o Army losses in 1916 (the army morale declined) ...read more.

Conclusion

The establishment of a single party rule: o Lenin dissolved the Constituent Assembly (which did not have a Bolshevik majority). o Dictatorial methods before this had included: suppression of newspapers, banning of the Cadet Party, setting up a secret police (Cheka). o The communist aimed to "suppress all attempts of the bourgeoisie to return to power: and this is what is meant by the dictatorship of the proletariat." o Lenin drew up a new constitution after dissolving the assembly. Lenin?s Constitution: o Drawn up in 1918 but only accepted w/ adjustments in 1922 & 1924. o See notes for further info on basic rights, voting rights, etc. The ending of the war: Lenin wanted to obtain peace and signed in March 1918 the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: o Russia lost Poland, Finland, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, the Ukraine, part of Belorussia and Transcaucasia. (1,3 million sq. miles of territory, a pop. of 62 million people, 1/3 of all her railways, _ of her coal and iron resources.) Advantages: o Bolsheviks did not have to deal w/ discontented minorities. o Bolsheviks could concentrate on control of Russia itself o End of war meant Lenin could concentrate on internal difficulties. The treaty was unpopular, the German ambassador was assassinated, and attempts to assassinate Lenin were made. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Stalins Russia, 1924-53 revision guide

    * He also had ideas that appeared dangerous; he believed that the USSR should try to ferment revolution in other states because Russia could only be successful if supported by proletarian revolutions in the West. * He also advocated a radical solution to economic problems, opposed NEP and believed that

  2. Lenin and the Bolshevik revolution.

    The movement flowed both ways. At a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Mensheviks in March, one speaker proposed readjusting the cleavage between the two factions on purely defensist-internationalist grounds. Although the proposal was rejected, a de facto readjustment took place anyway.

  1. Causes of show trials + purges of 1930s.

    This problem ('scissors crisis') provided the government with its central economic dilemma. Scissors Crisis - the widening gap between prices for industrial goods and those for agricultural goods. The increase in prices for industrial goods meant that peasants had less incentive to grow food for a surplus.

  2. AS Level Edexcel History Spain 1931-33 Revision Notes

    before Alfonso XII took the throne. The monarch was not interested in tackling social issues but rather living his own lavish existence. They were traditional and disconnected from the people. Church Church had strong links to the monarchy and by 1931 was hopelessly out of touch with changes with the Church in Europe.

  1. Assess Lenin's strengths and weaknesses as leader of Russia from 1917 to 1924.

    Lenin changed all of this, in his speech he declared that February had not been a genuine revolution as it was far from giving Russia political freedom. He condemned the provisional government and called for its overthrow in a second revolution.

  2. The Impact of Stalins Leadership in the USSR, 1924 1941. Extensive notes

    The only freedom peasants had was what to buy and sell. It was a system of small-scale individual farming which could not support ambitious industrialisation plans. 3. There was continuing hostility from the peasantry, as shown in complaints collected by the secret police.

  1. Assess the view that the Bolshevik rule from 1917 to 1924 was shaped more ...

    Lenin had failed to interpret one very important piece of any society. There will always be greed and a lust for power for those that don?t have it. John Laver book, ?Lenin? which was published in 1994 addresses Lenin?s view towards the different Nationalities of the Russian Empire, now by

  2. 1798 Irish Rebellion notes

    In some minds, republicanism could easily be combined with the virtues of exclusionist Protestantism, and the French Revolution could itself be celebrated as a victory against the infidel Catholic Church. 1. The subject of the transformation of the United Irishmen from a constitutional to a revolutionary society is a fascinating but complex one.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work