• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Russia 1905-1941

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Russia 1905-1941 Introduction to Russia At the beginning of the century Russia was difficult to rule for many reasons. 1.) Poor Communications - Russia was too big to effectively send messages across yet, you couldn't send messages by road either as most roads hadn't been paved making it difficult to pass across. Many rivers were impassable and the Trans Siberian Railway took over a week to go from Moscow to Vladivostok 2.) Diverse languages - many Russians spoke French or other languages rather than Russian, as most were not Russian and didn't consider themselves to be, they considered themselves to be Georgians or Kazaks, not Russian. People also resented what was called Russification, this was the process of making people speak Russian, wear Russian clothes and obey the Russian Tzar. 3.) Sparse Population - Much of Russia was uninhabitable due to the Tundra in the North, most of Northern Russia is within the Arctic circle and so becomes desolate. 4.) Illiteracy - much of Russia was illiterate and those who could speak and write Russian preferred French anyway. 5.) Size - Russia spanned over two continents when Moscow was eating breakfast, it was an evening meal in Vladivostok. The Peasants Conditions for the peasants were very poor, many peasants used to be serfs, they were owned by the lords and would work on the lords land, when it was changed most of the land was given to the lords and it was the best land. At the time there was also a great population growth whereby the population increased by 50%, between 1860 and 1897.All of this inequality led to a revolution against the Tzar (Czar) in 1905. The Urban Workers The urban workers worked in place such as St. Petersburg and Moscow. The workers were treated unfairly, paid terrible wages, and forced to work long and hard. Their houses were small flats and from these they were expected to raise families. ...read more.

Middle

They headed back to European Russia furious at the Tzar and Stolypin. The Dumas that were supposed to aid the country just bowed down to the Tsars wishes. When a third Duma came to power in 1906, they revolted against the Tzar, he disbanded them and began working on a fourth Duma. Stolypin decided that the fourth Duma should have more nobles to stop the revolts, but even the nobles revolted. Stolypin then enforced military rule by setting up militia courts whereby people could be executed on the spot. This became known as Stolypins' noose. The freedom of speech noted in the October manifesto didn't exist. Political newspapers were banned and anything found to be against the Tzar was considered to be treason even political jokes. However some things did get better in Russia, between 1906 and 1914 there was an industrial boom in Russia thanks to the Duma. They rose to become an economic superpower with the 4th largest steel, coal, oil and pig iron in the world. This led to jobs becoming available to the peasants. World War One However not enough good things happened in the same ratio as to bad. In 1917 there was another revolution. This was not helped by Russia entering the war in 1914 and loosing early lowering morale even more and showing the Tzar to be useless. Another problem with WWI on the Russian front was that only 1 in 3 men had rifles the rest waited for someone else to die before they got a rifle. Also all of the Strong people were fighting the war meaning only weak people could farm, the same applied to industry, not enough could be made to support Russia. The Russians fell bankrupt, as the bank had not got its money back. The Russians had to borrow 90% of it's war funding. Conditions also went down, people were expected to work longer, harder and for a smaller wage. The price of goods increased as well to make matters worse. ...read more.

Conclusion

Lenin renamed the Bolshevik party the Communists at this point and renamed Russia, the USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). Within the Parliament the Social Revolutionaries won a majority of seats and so Lenin closed down the assembly after only one day. Communism or Dictatorship ? In 1917 Lenin wanted to create a Communist state whereby he had as much and more power than the Tzar did. In 1917 Lenin set up the Cheka, his secret police, the earlier equivalent of the KGB. The Tzar had his own secret police called the Okrana, most Cheka members where ex-Okrana. They would spy and assassinate anyone they believed to be an anti-Communist, most of the time without trial. In 1918 Lenin was almost assassinated, this triggered the Red Terror campaign where over 500,000 men were found to be anti-Communist and were killed. Lenin also banned all other political parties, it was kept this way until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. The media was also state controlled, only Bolshevik newspaper could be sold. Peace with Germany Lenin had to end the war at any cost, he feared it would be the war that would overthrow him just as the Provisional government had been. He knew he couldn't fight his enemies in Russia and elsewhere, so on March 3rd 1918, Trotsky travelled to Brest-Litovsk to sign a peace treaty with the Germans. These terms were very harsh, Russia lost over one-sixth of it's overall population and three-quarters of it's overall coal, oil and steel areas to the Germans. The Communists had paid a high price but they had ended the war However the areas to the north that Russia had lost became independent states and the Ukraine corn growing area was taken by the League of Nations when Germany signed the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, and given to Poland. Another problem with his treaty was that afterwards the Russians were seen as traitors as they "gave into" German demands. This led to them being banned from the League of Nations in 1919 as well as Germany. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Stalins Russia, 1924-53 revision guide

    * Trotsky's personality was a handicap; he was highly intellectual and impatient of people of lesser ability. He was arrogant and as a result he was not liked. * Trotsky did not at first see the need to make alliances.

  2. Russia 1905-1941 'Explain how the unpopularity of the Provisional Government contributed to the Bolshevik ...

    The Provisional Government's substantial inability to organise the war was exposed. The build up of Bolshevik power, support and authority was evident and by September 1917 the Bolsheviks had 49.6% of the support. This build up of support was owed to the Kornilov Revolt in July 1917, when the Provisional

  1. "Stalin transformed the Soviet Union from a backward country into a strong modern state ...

    war before engaging the Nazi's, Stalin had in fact saved Russia from a great deal of harm and loss to the economy and to the population. This is definitely a point in favour of Stalin's decisions, but whether or not the saving of the amount of lives in the war

  2. Assess the Impact Lenin Had On Russia and Its People Lenin was a great ...

    "Probably Lenin would have preferred to govern without terror, but he was quite sanguine about applying it in what he considered to be an atmosphere of class conflict. 'How can one make revolution without executions?'" J. Laver (Coursework Booklet) Russia was in a very bad state by March 1921.

  1. Why was there a revolution in Russia in 1905?

    At a stage in the early 20th century when other great powers such as Britain were enjoying some form of democracy, Russia was still locked in a traditional and unforgiving (to those outside of autocratic circles) political structure.. Leo Tolstoy a Russian philosopher at the time openly addressed the Tsar,

  2. Lenin and the Bolshevik revolution.

    It scarcely matters that party reconcil- ation would have been problematic even without Lenin's opposition---He was resented for not even wanting to try, and for making his views known in such a callous manner and at such an inappropriate time.

  1. Why did revolution in Russia succeed in February 1917 and not in 1905? (30 ...

    The Tsar?s inability to recognise the need for reform of some sort, illustrated by his dissolution of the progressive State Duma, further enhanced Liberal opposition to the Tsar. The Tsar had made it apparent that he was not interested in reform.

  2. The Impact of Stalins Leadership in the USSR, 1924 1941. Extensive notes

    Reasons for the plans: 1. Sort out the grain shortage of 1927-8. 2. Lead the USSR into Socialism. 3. Buy western technology to make production more efficient. 4. NEP inefficient. 5. Provide more technology for agriculture to speed up agricultural efficiency.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work