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The causes of the 1848 revolution of the Italian states

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Introduction

________________ The Causes of the 1848 revolution in the Italian states. [12] Italy made progress towards unification, during the Napoleonic period, however at the Congress at Vienna the country was broken up into copious small states, mostly under the Austrian influence. There were strict censorship of the press, subjective arrests without trial which helped control the spread of liberal and national ideology. One of the unifying factors among the nationalist, and the cause for the revolution, was the hatred of the Austrian rule in Italy. They directly governed Lombardy and Venetia and the Kingdom of Naples and Sicily and other parts were all run by despotic Austrians. Another reason that the majority of the citizens of Italy detested the Austrians as they exploited Italian citizens with high taxes and conscription and job preference were given to German speakers, there was no meritocracy, which dissatisfied the middle classes. ...read more.

Middle

These actions encouraged the liberals and nationals that he was a potential forerunner for those who seek hope for change in the Italian states. The growth of nationalism and liberalism had long term beliefs that were fundamental to the cause. The nationals, or the ?Risorgimento? an ideological and literary movement for Italian unification, and helped provoke the national awareness of the Italian people. One of its influential leaders, Mazzini, a republican, who?s idea was to unify Italy without a monarchy. In 1831, there was dissatisfaction with the inadequate progress of secret societies lead to the birth of ?Young Italy?, Italy?s first political party and a secret society much like the Carbonari, representing the domestic aspects of the Risorgimento in hope to educate the Italian people of their nationhood and inspire to rise against reactionary regimes expecting a united Italy and freedom from foreign occupation. ...read more.

Conclusion

Only 95 percent of the population was affected as rapid growth in population caused shortage of land and was pressured on available food stocks. There was no economic reforms, little money was spent on social projects like education, about 75 to 80 percent of the population were illiterate, and hospitals, and the average life expectancy was very low. There was poor communication between the powers themselves and the people, leaving the people discontented. Industrial industry was underdeveloped, Italy had only 620km of railways compared to almost 1000km in Britain and nearly 6000km in Germany. Trade with other Italian states was as well hindered while Austria was highly promoted. The February Revolution in France unsettled the Italian States and the fall of Metternich was a symbol of reaction, a real opportunity for Italy to determine its own potential and future without the fear of Austrian troops breathing down their necks. ...read more.

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