• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The main events of the Civil Rights movement happened between 1945 and 1968. However black Americans did not suddenly start campaigning for better rights in 1945, organisations and campaigns had existed before then.

Extracts from this document...


From its birth in 1776 until the year 1955, the "American Experiment"-despite its many wonderful qualities-still suffered from racial inequality and injustice. These realities contradicted the equality and religious language at the root of the nation's founding. Finally, in 1955, progress toward racial equality took a great leap compared to the slow and gradual progress seen prior to this time. The champions of the Civil Rights Movement always included religious language in their battle for justice and wholesome race relations.With the defeat of the Confederate States of America at the end of the Civil War, the nation entered a 12-year period (1865-1877) known as the Reconstruction. But from 1877 through to the end of the century, there arose a tragic proliferation of racially discriminatory laws and violence targeted at American blacks. Scholars generally agree that this period stands as the nadir of American race relations.Even though Congress had adopted the Fourteenth Amendment to guarantee equal protection of blacks, in the states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, and Kansas, there emerged elected, appointed, and/or hired government officials who began to require and/or permit flagrant discrimination by way of various mechanisms. ...read more.


The Montgomery protest inspired others to take action.Throughout the late 1950s and early 1960s civil rights groups organised marches, demonstrations, boycotts, sit-ins and freedom rides. All of these were done using non - violent methods.The sit-ins were started by the student civil rights movement. (The SNCC - Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee) They sat at whites only lunch counters waiting to be served. When they were arrested, another group of multi-racial students were waiting to take their place. The students trained themselves to resist the taunts of white racists who would shout at them and abuse them. The freedom riders were mostly organised by CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) .They protested against the segregation of long distance buses.They would board a bus in one state and travel to another, refusing to abide by the racial segregation rules of the bus companies.Freedom riders were often met with violence when the buses stopped.Martin Luther King and the SCLC ( Southern Christian Leadership Conference) ...read more.


This was particularly true of younger, more radical activists.And these young radicals argued that non-violence was not necessarily the best tactic and that is was not assertive enough.Some also argued that integration was not necessarily a good thing and that black people should support separatism.But these views were promoted by the Black Muslim group the Nation of Islam and most famously by Malcolm X. Malcolm X felt that non-violence simply encouraged white racism. Malcolm X was assassinated in 1965. Even more militant were the Black Panthers.They were an armed group who wanted to force white people to grant equal right.And from the mid 1960s the civil rights movement began to split. In 1968 Martin Luther King was assassinated and this provoked more riots and the civil rights movement found it difficult to carry on in an effective way after Martin Luther King's death and Vietnam became a more dominant issue for protest movements. And Stokely Carmichael was a student leader who became a leader of what was called the Black Power movement. He said that blacks should take control of all aspects of their lives. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level History of the USA, 1840-1968 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level History of the USA, 1840-1968 essays

  1. Peer reviewed

    Assess the view that the Supreme Court was the most important branch of federal ...

    4 star(s)

    This period in the 1960s was truly a high for civil rights activists, and the leaps forward were unmatched by any President previously (with the possible exception of Lincoln). After this high, there had to be a low. The end of the 60s brought with it war in Vietnam, which

  2. Peer reviewed

    To what extent were Malcolm X and the subsequent Black Power Movement the 'Evil ...

    4 star(s)

    Through this oppression, they had stripped African Americans of their rights, freedom and culture and the only way to escape from this oppression would be to be separate, not integrate. Malcolm X saw nothing but white hostility in the North where racial discrimination was not seen to be so prevalent.

  1. Peer reviewed

    How effective was the early civil rights movement in advancing Black Civil Rights in ...

    3 star(s)

    Also many other States exploited the Amendment as it still carried and made no reference to the right of the black vote. This point is shared by historian Eric Foner, DeWitt Clinton Professor of History, Columbia University. He says, "The Fourteenth Amendment did not fully satisfy the Radical Republicans.

  2. Linguistic Study - Linguistic Analysis of Martin Luther King's 'I Have a Dream', and ...

    Alliteration is evident again here ("Life, Liberty"), which makes these two abstract nouns more memorable. 'Cheque' Rhetoric Luther King compares the rights of all men to money and likens the promise of equal rights to a cheque - "America has given the Negro people a bad cheque..."

  1. Revision notes - the USA 1945 to 1980

    The most famous were Klaus Fuchs, a German born British Physicist, and the Rosenbergs, a US couple who were tried and executed in 1953. 5. Finally the McCarran act said that no communist could have a US passport or work in the defence industries.

  2. Why did the Civil Rights Movement emerge in the 1950s?

    The change in the American economy or the economic boom as you may call it was the next important trigger for the emergence of the civil rights movement in the 1950s. Due to WW2 the industrial output was increased meaning there was a higher demand for labour, which gave them this bargaining power.

  1. The question that will be investigated is, to what extent was the case of ...

    Education's ineffective results, and as a result, limits the perspective of their views and the audience's view on the partiality of the source. In "The Aftermath of Brown v Board of Education of Topeka: Stride toward freedom," the authors, Jim Ruderman and Bill Fauver's origins are not specified, only that

  2. How far was Martin Luther King's leadership responsible for the gains made by the ...

    This is evident as King fails to gain the support from President Johnson who refuses to involve the federal government in the campaign. This is not surprising following King?s attack on the Vietnam War highlighting the misjudgment of the situation he found himself in.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work