• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

'The need to modernise their backward economy was the most important reason why the rulers of Russia introduced reforms.' How far do you agree with this view of the period 1855 to 1956?

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

'The need to modernise their backward economy was the most important reason why the rulers of Russia introduced reforms.' How far do you agree with this view of the period 1855 to 1956? Introduction In the period 1855 to 1956, Russia went through many different rulers, all of whom introduced reforms. Reforms such as Witte's industrialisation were essential because the economy was behind that of the Western nations for most of the period. However, many of the reforms were motivated by a need for Russia to prepare or recover from a war, such as the Crimean War and the Great Patriotic War. There are also examples of when reforms were undertaken in order to keep power, such as when Nicholas II introduced the Dumas. Also, the ideologies of the rulers cannot be ignored. The tsars used reforms in order to keep their autocratic power and the communists used War Communism in order to speed up the process of attaining communism. Therefore, all of these need to be assessed in order to find the most important reason. ...read more.

Middle

Khrushchev: * He tried to increase agricultural production by introducing the Virgin Lands Campaign. Reason 2 - prepare for war or recover from a war Alexander II: * The emancipation was partially motivated by a need to reform the military. This is because according to Milyutin, "serfdom does not permit us to shorten the term of service nor to increase the number of those indefinite leave so as to reduce the number of troops on hand". * He also introduced military reforms to decrease the corruption of the officers. This shows that for Alexander II, recovering from the loss of the Crimean war was important to him. Alexander III: * Witte focused on building railways such as the trans-Siberian railway which would help Russia to expand in the East. * No wars happened in his reign so war was not an important factor for Alexander III. Lenin: * War communism can be seen as a means of winning the civil war because the Reds were able to feed their army. ...read more.

Conclusion

Alexander III: * He was a true autocrat who did not believe in his father's liberal ideas. His counter reforms can be seen as a response to the reforms of Alexander II. Lenin: * War communism aimed to create a communist state before going through the other stages as proposed by Marx. Lenin believed that war communism was a means to achieving true communism. * The NEP can be seen as a shift in Lenin's ideology. Conclusion Ultimately, the rulers of Russia in the period 1855 to 1956 introduced reforms for many reasons. There is no doubt that some of the reforms were made because of their personal beliefs but this cannot be seen as the main reason. Most of the rulers used repression more effectively in keeping power than reforms. Although all the rulers recognised that the economy was behind that of the Western nations, it seems that they never prioritised it. Agricultural reforms were always implemented in order to industrialise the country. However, for many of the rulers, industrialisation was used to make Russia stronger and the best way this could be achieved was through war. Therefore, the need to prepare for war was the most important reason for introducing reforms. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Modern European History, 1789-1945 essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Assess the view that the lives of the peasants in Russia did not improve ...

    4 star(s)

    High taxation and brutality was another common feature, the Mir were very brutal in their grain collections and this brutality is a continuing theme under communist Governments. The state bore down heavily on the rural population under the Tsars, paying a low procurement price for requisitioned goods which affected their income.

  2. Stalins Russia, 1924-53 revision guide

    * Managers of industries who did not meet their targets for production. * Scientists, engineers, experts of any kind who Stalin did not trust or understand. Only loyal party officials, who accepted Stalin's decision without question, were safe. * Army and Navy officers; every Admiral of the Soviet fleet, three

  1. How far do you agree Communist ideology influenced Stalin's decision to implement Collectivisation in ...

    Fitzpatrick argues much of the problems and famine during the policy was due to both the actions of local party members and urban outsiders "This lead them to interpret their mission in the most extreme terms...forcible closing of the village establishment and public destruction of icons,"13 This counters the view,

  2. 'Communists and Tsars ruled Russia in the same way.' How far do you agree ...

    The army was continually used by both communist and tsars too. The Polish Revolt in 1863 was easily crushed by the Russian military, and in 1956 the Hungary Rebellion faced the same level of brute force. This showed how the importance of the army to the Russian state, evident in 1855, had remained the case in 1964.

  1. How far does a study of the period 1855 to 1956 suggest that, following ...

    to create his totalitarian dictatorship - through several moderate changes to the system he had been allowed a very wide scope of power to use when he took power. Under the Tsars, great leaders such as Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great saw themselves as leaders who were enforcing

  2. The need to modernise their backward economy was the most important reason why the ...

    else they will crush us'', which suggest that the most important reason for introducing economic reform was to improve Russia's standing on the world stage, and not simply to boost their domestic economy. In contrast however, Lenin's abandonment of war communism for NEP was in part to address the backward

  1. Success of Daniel O'Connell's Catholic Emancipation Campaign

    Short Answer: Others believe that Catholic Emancipation would have not had a chance in passing Parliament without the great leadership of Daniel O'Connell. O'Connell used several methods to bring the issue to the forefront. He set up the Catholic Association where he wanted to "take the strongest measures the law

  2. 'Alexander III was the most successful Tsar in the period 1855-1917'. How far do ...

    (which Milyutin pushed for), this meant that more of the population than ever where eligible to become officers. As well as this, new and better equipment was introduced (for example rifles, and ironclad steam-ships), as well as better transport (in the form of strategic railways)

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work