• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

"The New Frontier failed to deliver the social and economic reform that Kennedy promised". Assess the validity of the statement.

Extracts from this document...


"THE NEW FRONTIER FAILED TO DELIVER THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC REFORM THAT JFK PROMISED." ASSESS THE VALIDITY OF THIS STATEMENT. I would suggest that Kennedy, overall, did fail in achieving his aims concerning social and economic reform in the US during his presidency. This was due in part to his extremely thin party majority in Congress, the opposition from Southern Democrats amongst his party who were opposed to the Civil Rights Movement, and Kennedy's preoccupation with foreign policy such as the Cold War and Cuban crises. Kennedy aimed to access "uncharted areas of science and space, unsolved problems of peace and war, unconquered problems of ignorance and prejudice, unanswered questions of poverty", and I would suggest that these aims were not achieved. Firstly, Kennedy enjoyed mixed success concerning social reform. Kennedy had aimed to reduce the proportion of Americans living below the poverty line (this being defined at the time as a family of four Americans living on an income of under $3000 per annum). ...read more.


demonstrating the perceived superiority of the capitalist system as opposed to the USSR's communist system (an example of how foreign policy intruded on domestic affairs). Kennedy's economic advisors thought it would be possible to 'fine tune' the economy by pumping money into domestic and military spending. Kennedy took this advice, and aimed to solve the problem of recession through jobs created by military spending, which would cause a mini 'cycle of prosperity'. Kennedy also succeeded in passing the 1962 Expansion Act and Revenue Act, reducing unemployment to 5.5% through an increase in government spending and aid for businesses. I would suggest that his aided the economy, as 1 percent more of Americans were now employed, and Kennedy's economic advisors believed that full employment was 4%. Kennedy also proposed a tax cut in 1962, but this was not passed until after his death, being signed by Johnson in 1964. This links to part of the overall reasoning for the New Frontier's failure to deliver: Kennedy's poor relationship with Congress. ...read more.


Kennedy dispatched federal troops and the Alabama National Guard to the University of Alabama, where Governor George Wallace was attempting to stop two African American students from entering. I think that this is an example of Kennedy's strong belief in Civil Rights, and even though Kennedy was assassinated on 22 November 1963, he succeeded in his aims of allowing every black American "the equal right to develop their talent and their ability and their motivation, to make something of themselves". Overall, I believe that Kennedy's New Frontier failed to achieve its aims, which were to improve socioeconomic conditions for as many Americans as possible. Kennedy failed because of his lack of congressional support as well as his failure to aid black Americans in an economic sense. In the long term, however, I think it is possible that Kennedy, in fact, succeeded. For example, while Kennedy's tax cut proposal initially failed, it came through shortly after his death when passed by Lyndon B. Johnson. i U.S Department of Labor ii American Sociological Review ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level History of the USA, 1840-1968 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level History of the USA, 1840-1968 essays

  1. Was Vietnam Kennedy or Johnson's War?

    However, despite this debate it is unclear whether Kennedy would have really withdrawn from Vietnam as on many occasions he publically stated of his commitment to keeping South Vietnam out of communist control. In one of his last press conferences he even stated: 'In my opinion, for us to withdraw

  2. Roosevelt(TM)s aims of relief, recovery and reform 1933-1945

    Some critics failed to acknowledge was that this was specifically Roosevelt's intention. He saw his task as the saving of, rather than the destruction of, American capitalism. Roosevelt was also criticised because many people thought that it was all in the favour of the rich and powerful; the larger banks were given more control over the smaller ones.

  1. How successful was Roosevelt in delivering relief, recovery and reform during the New Deal?

    in the agricultural sector. Meanwhile, other organisations aimed to have a more direct influence: the Civil Works Administration provided emergency relief and aid during the hard winter of 1933-1934. Nevertheless, these organisations often failed to work properly on the local level; they hardly covered a sufficient amount of people to have a noticeable effect on the situation.

  2. Describe Wilsons Fourteen points, Why did Congress fail to ratify the Peace Settlement?

    progressives who felt like he was betraying his own principles; the Irish Americans who were disappointed with his position on the Irish Question; even some Democrats who could not trust him, and all the other enemies Wilson had made throughout his career.

  1. Research on the major Civil rights events between 1963 to 1968

    None of the official speeches were by women; Josephine Baker gave a speech during the preliminary offerings, but women's presence in the official program was limited to a "tribute" led by Bayard Rustin (planned to be Myrlie Evers, who was unable to attend due to a prior commitment in Boston).

  2. Civil Rights Revision Cards 1945-68

    1. Who? KING/SCLC 1. Deliberate choice to campaign in B (white divisions - extreme views of white racists versus white businessmen who felt racism held city back, SNCC & NAACP inactive there ? therefore no divisions, hot tempered Public Safety Commissioner ? ?Bull? Connor)

  1. Argue who you believe assassinated JFK and why

    Kennedy and was never received the chance to progress to trial, there is enough convincing evidence, to satisfactorily make conclusions, that Lee Harvey Oswald attempted to assassinate JFK and played a tremendous role in making it possible. In November 1963, the majority of citizens worldwide recognised Lee Harvey Oswald as the only assassin of President Kennedy.

  2. Averting the Apocalypse: The Cuban Missile Crisis

    World countries to develop democratic forms of government through economic progress in order to resist communism. (Jones) Kennedy's problems with Fidel Castro and Cuba were already in place before he took office. By the time he was in office the Soviet Union and Cuba were in cahoots and major trading

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work