• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Russians began the war in a disorganised way as a result of the purges of officers prior to the outbreak.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Russians began the war in a disorganised way as a result of the purges of officers prior to the outbreak. In addition Stalin ignored intelligence concerning the German invasion plans. Thus the issue here is to reflect on just how the Russians managed to become one of the victor nations. Among the factors one would include: the central organisation of resources which gave the nation the ability to resist; the large-scale mobilisation of resources, especially the placing of women in the workforce to release males for army service; the partial reconciliation with the Church; Stalin's rapid use of his leadership and personality to unite the people. Other factors would include German mistakes and the impact of the Russian climate on the invading forces Introduction: On 22 June 1941, Nazi Germany began the Operation Barbarossa, the invasion of the Soviet Union. The Great Patriotic War began inauspiciously for the Soviet Union as the military forces were caught unprepared and Stalin ordered the border units not to return fire. "on the first day of the war 1200 Soviet planes were destroyed" (www.english.pravda.ru) The German blitzkrieg nearly succeeded in defeating the Russians within the first months. ...read more.

Middle

The Gosplan (State Planning Commission) set out strict priorities and production quotas. Workers directly involved in the war effort were placed under military discipline, no one was allowed to leave without permission, holidays were suspended and there were severe punishments for breaches of discipline. As so many men were involved in military service with an extremely high casualty rate, the industrial and economic revival was heavily dependent upon women. In 1943 50% of the workers in the war industry were women and 66% in agriculture. The general living conditions were not pleasant and food was rationed. Nationalism / patriotic spirit The Soviet government had to rely on the support of the people to gain victory. In order to increase popular enthusiasm for the war, Stalin changed his domestic policies to increase patriotic spirit. Nationalistic slogans replaced much of the communist rhetoric in official announcements and the mass media. Active persecution of religion ceased and in 1943 Stalin allowed the Russian Orthodox Church to name a patriarch when the office had been vacant for two decades. In the countryside the communist authorities permitted greater freedom on the collective farms. ...read more.

Conclusion

However, Stalin remained a potent symbol of power to the Russian people, despite the massive losses, the mistakes and the lack of preparation in the early days. Stalin was hesitant and enept early in the war but did eventually listen to his generals and accept their advice - Vasilevsky, Zhukov, Antonov - and thereby turned his vast nation into an irresitable force to win the Patriotic War. Conclusion The policies employed in the Great Patriotic War proved to be successful and resulted in the defeat of the German army. They also meant that Russia emerged as one of the world's great military powers with control over most of Eastern Europe but these national achievements had been bought at great cost. An estimated 25 million Soviet citizens, military and civilian, perished in the war and severe material losses were inflicted throughout the war affected areas of the country. The war was ultimately won by the suffering and efforts of all the ordinary Soviet people. " were organised, bullied or coaxed by their political masters and responded to their task with a mixture of crusading zeal and fatalistic duty" Richard Overy ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level International History, 1945-1991 essays

  1. Khrushchev's attempts at modernisation.

    He also had very firm ideas about how the problems could be put right. Unfortunately for him, he was frequently not ready to listen to advice from experts, especially in agriculture, and he was also not prepared to allow the creation of a genuinely free market in the Soviet Union.

  2. Armed forces.

    At the same time, the Japanese had been left unchallenged to develop in the Pacific Ocean. When the war ended they quickly sought to establish some kind of parity with the Royal Navy; the result was the Washington conference. This conference established the so called 5:5:3 ratios for capital ships.

  1. How important was Stalins Leadership in relation to other factors, in accounting for the ...

    1500 enterprises and 10 million people were transferred eastwards and the new industrial heartlands began production. The planned economy also meant that industrial plants were converted into military production factories (for example, in Moscow a children's bicycle factory was converted into a automatic rifles factory).

  2. American History.

    - For example: William Hill Brown wrote The Power of Sympathy (1789) to warn women about seduction; Royall Tyler wrote The Contrast (1787) about good vs. bad behavior; and the most popular book of the time was Mason Locke Weem's Life of Washington (1800)

  1. The great Patriotic war - From incompetence to victory.

    It explains why Hitler was allowed to take Austria and why most of Europe sold out Czechoslovakia with regard to the Sudetenland. The culmination of the Western Powers turning a deaf ear to Soviet proposals that would have allowed it to protect itself and a policy of full appeasement towards Hitler drove Stalin to accept the non-aggression pact with Germany.

  2. The Prelude to the 1975 War and the Cairo Agreement.

    Matters came to a head on June 8 1978 when a local Phalange leader, Joud el Bayeh, was murdered by six armed men sent by Tony Franjieh. Bashir Gemayel decided to strike back. On June 13, 1978, Gemayel launched a surprise attack that decimated the Marada Brigade, Tony Franjieh was killed in the attack.

  1. In the light of the documents, critically analyse the success of the transformation of ...

    The government blamed the kulaks and sent civil servants to search out the hoarded grain. Kulaks who refused to surrender their produce were imprisoned and poorer peasants were encouraged to criticize the richer and to take the possession of their land from them. Collectivisation remained voluntary and had some success.

  2. The German surrender at Stalingrad, February 1943 Sources Question

    When we know that the vast majority of Stalingrad was in ruins so they must have found the minority where some buildings were still standing and up- right. This is to show to the public that the Germans did not make that much of an impact on the town of Stalingrad.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work